0 B> G8B0; 40<0 !<8B0. !B@>D0 1-VII 2 42CE 8AB>@8G5A:8E ?597060E.

 

& A5@0!
">, GB> 1K;> <=K9,
!B0;> =K=G5 :0@0.
.CH:8=.

 

N157=K9 <>9 !<8B, O >G5=L 4>2>;5= 0H8< B@C4><. & :=830 0H0 >B;8G05BAO 3;C18=>9, >A=>20B5;L=>ABLN, ?@>=8F0B5;L=>ABLN, &2 =59 @0AAK?0=0 B0:0O <0AA0 ?@8<5@>2 8 ;N1>?KB=KE D0:B>2, GB> >=0 4>;6=0, 2 :>=F5 :>=F>2, ?@82;5GL 2A5>1I55 2=8<0=85.

M284 .< 40<8BC.

 

 

1. "578A.

2. 20 =538=0.

3. (0B:>5 >A=>20=85.

4. CG8 0AA83=0F89.

4.1. '5;>25: - G8=>2=8:.

4.2. '5;>25:-?><5I8:.

4.3. !K@>9 C3>; >AA88.

4.4. >E>4=0O G0ABL 1N465B0 AB0@H53> =538=0.

5. 878B 40<0 !<8B0.

5.1. %;51=K5 F5=K.

5.2. Q=.

5.3. 5:A5;L=K9 :C@A.

5.4. >20O ?>40BL 8 =>2K9 =0;>3.

5.5. >?KB:0 ?>4AGQB0 C1KB:>2.

6. C<06=0O ?5=0.

7. ;>:>7=5==K9 3>AC40@AB25==K9 A5:@5B0@L.

7.1. @5A5G5=85 1C<06=>3> ?>B>:0.

7.2 25@L, >B?5@B0O 2 ?CAB>BC.

7.3. A5>1I55 154AB285.

8. 073>2>@ >BF0 A AK=><.

9. 2CE-AD0.

9.1. 3> D5>40;L=0O @5=B0.

9.2. ?>@K 2=CB@5==59 E@>=>;>388.

9.3. !8=B57.

 

1. "578A.

>94Q< >B ACB8. VII AB@>D5 ?5@2>9 3;02K 235=8O =538=0:

(1) KA>:>9 AB@0AB8 =5 8<5O
(2) ;O 72C:>2 687=8 =5 I048BL,
(3) 5 <>3 >= O<10 >B E>@5O,
(4) 0: B;8G8BL.
(5) @0=8; ><5@0, $5>:@8B0;
(6) 0 B> G8B0; 40<0 !<8B0,
(7) 1K; 3;C1>:>9 M:>=><,
(8) "> 5ABL, C<5; AC48BL > B><,
(9) 0: 3>AC40@AB2> 1>30B55B,
(10) G5< 6825B, 8 ?>G5 (11) 5 =C6=> 7>;>B0 5
(12) >340 ?@>AB>9 ?@>4C:B 8<55B.
(13) B5F ?>=OBL 53> =5 <>3
(14) 75<;8 >B4020; 2 70;>3 {[1]}.

 

AB8E8 (5) (12) 2?>;=5 A>>B25BAB2CNB 1C:20;L=>, ?> A A;53:0 70:020==>B>@K< <5AB0< 0?8A:8 > 4@52=59 8 =>2>9 >AA88 2 55 ?>;8B8G5A:>< 8 3@0640=A:>< >B=>H5=8OE ..0@0<78=0.

<5==>,

(5) @0=8; ><5@0, $5>:@8B0:

& >A5;5 2 A0A25I5==KE 3>AC40@AB20E B@51>20;>AL >B G8=>2=8:>2 B>;L:> =5>1E>48<>3> 4;O 8E A;C61K 7=0=8O: =0C:8 8=65=5@=>9 >B 8=65=5@0, 70:>=>2545=8O >B AC4L8 8 ?@>G. # =0A ?@54A540B5;L @0640=A:>9 ?0;0BK >1O70= 7=0BL ><5@0 8 $5>:@8B0, A5:@5B0@L A5=0BA:89 A2>9AB2> >:A835=0 8 2A5E 307>2. 8F5-3C15@=0B>@ ?8D03>@>2C D83C@C, =0478@0B5;L 2 4><5 AC<0AH54H8E @85 ?@02>, 8;8 C<@CB :>;;56A:8<8 8 B8BC;O@=K<8 A>25B=8:0<8. 8 40-;5B=OO 45OB5;L=>ABL 3>AC40@AB25==0O, =8 206=K5 70A;C38 =5 >A2>1>640NB >B 4>;30 7=0BL 25I8, A>2A5< 4;O =0A GC64K5 8 15A?>;57=K5. 8:>340 ;N1>2L : =0C:0< =5 ?@>872>48;0 459AB28O, AB>;L =5A>3;0A=>3> A 8E F5;LN! {[2]} {[3]}

 

(9)-(12) 0: 3>AC40@AB2> 1>30B55B, / G5< 6825B, 8 ?>G5/ 5 =C6=> 7>;>B0 5340 ?@>AB>9 ?@>4C:B 8<55B:

07=0 1>30B55B B>;L:> 42CA>10<8: @07<=>65=85< 25I59 8;8 C<5=LH5=85< @0AE>4>2, ?@>ABLN 8;8 15@56;82>ABLN. A;8 3>4 >B 3>40 1C45B C =0A 1>;55 E;510, AC:>=, :>6, E>;AB0, B> A>45@60=85 0@<89 4>;6=> AB>8BL <5=55, 0 BI0B5;L=0O M:>=><8O 1>30B55 7>;>BKE @C4=8:>2&. A;8 1K 3>AC40@L 40; =0< :;59<5==K5 I5?:8 8 25;5; E>48BL 8< 2<5AB> @C1;59, =0H54H8 A?>A>1 ?@54>E@0=OBL =0A >B D0;LH82KE <>=5B 45@52O==KE, B>

& A8;L=>5 3>AC40@AB2>, 1>30B>5 25I0<8, 4>;6=> ;8 ?@87=0BL A51O =8I8<, 4>;6=> ;8 =5 8<5BL =8 0@<88, =8 D;>B>2 4;O B>3>, GB> C =53>, ?> >1AB>OB5;LAB20<, =5B 2 871KB:5 =8 A5@51@0, =8 7>;>B0? !0<>5 7>;>B> 8<55B 3>@074> 1>;55 2>>1@078B5;L=>3>, =565;8 2=CB@5==53> 4>AB>8=AB20. B> 1K 70 53> 1;5AB>G:C >B40; 78<>N B5?;CN HC1C, 5A;8 1K >=> F5=8;>AL B>;L:> ?> A2>59 A>1AB25==>9 ?>;L75? > >B40N HC1C 8 15@C 1;5AB>G:C, :>340 <>3C >1>9B8AL 157 ?5@2>9, 0 =0 2B>@CN :C?8BL A515 :0DB0=. A;8 <=5 40NB :0DB0= 8 70 1C<06:C, B> 1C<06:0 8 1;5AB>G:0 4;O <5=O @02=> 4@03>F5==K. AA83=0F88 C<5=LH0NBAO 2 F5=5 >B A2>53> @07<=>65=8O; 7>;>B> 8 A5@51@> B0:65. B:@KB85 <5@8:8 ?@>8725;> 2 >F5=:5 52@>?59A:8E B>20@>2 459AB285, ?>4>1=>5 B> 2848< =K=5 2 >AA88 >B 0AA83=0F89. !59 70:>= A>@07<5@=>AB8 =5?@5;>65=. {[4]}

 

'B> :0A05BAO 7=0<5=8B>3> (6) 0 B> G8B0; 40<0 !<8B0 - 4>AB0B>G=> ?@>AB59H53> @071K C1548BAO 2 8A:><>< F8B8@C5<0O 745AL G0ABL 70?8A:8 0@0<78=0 A?;>HL ?>A2OI5=0 >F5=:5 (2 >A=>2=>< >F5=:5 A0<>9 :@8B8G5A:>9) 45OB5;L=>AB8 ..!?5@0=A:>3>.

>2>@O > ><5@5 8 $5>:@8B5, 0@0<78= :@8B8:C5B <0=8D5ABK ;5:A0=4@0 I !?5@0=A:>3> >1 >1@07>20B5;L=>< F5=75 4;O G8=>2=8:>2; 70B5< 84QB 0=0;87 D8=0=A>2>9 @5D>@3> (1810 3>4). > @5D>@<0 MB0 25@=55, 5Q B5>@5B8G5A:>5 >A=>20=85 - AB@>8;0AL !?5@0=A:8< ?> 40<8BC (=0A:>;L:> !?5@0=A:89 ?>=8<0; 8 <>3 8A?>;L7>20BL 8458 H>B;0=4A:>3>

2@>?5 3>A?>4AB2>20;8 2 B> 2@5?>GB8 157CA;>2=>, 8458 35=80;L=>3> 40<0 !<8B0. ... 5:>B>@K5 87 <=>3>G8A;5==KE ?5@5;>65=89 =3;89A:>3> CG5=>3>, A;8BK5 A C<>7@5=8O<8 $@0=FC7A:8E M:>=><8AB>2 8 @072545==K5 <=>3>A;>2=K<8 :><<5=B0@8O<8 5<5F:8E ?8A0B5;59 B>9 M?>E8, ?@>=8:;8 2 5B5@1C@3. >, 1K2 ?@5?>40205@5 (0:045<8:>< (B>@E><) 8 2 CG51=KE 702545=8OE (?@>D5AA>@>< 0;C3LO=A:8<), MB8 B5>@88 4>;3> >AB020;8AL 157 2AO:>3> 2;8O=8O 8 2>7459AB28O =0 <5@K ?@028B5;LAB20. !?5@0=A:89 ?5@2K9 C =0A ?>:CA8;AO 225AB8 8E 2 ?@0:B8:C. {[5]}

 

"5>@5B8G5A:85 >A=>2K @5D>@<5=8BK9 ;0= D8=0=A>2 !?5@0=A:>3> 1K; ?5@5@01>B0==>9 70?8A:>9 B>3> A0<>3> 0;C3LO=A:>3>, A?5F80;8AB0 8 ?@5?>4020B5;O A<8BB80=A:>3> CG5=8O -

7.. 0;C3LO=A:>3>, 8@AB0 8 /:>18, !?5@0=A:89 >1@07>20;, 4;O A>AB02;5=8O $8=0=A>2>3> ?;0=0, >A>1K9 :><8B5B. > A>2>:C?=K9 8E B@C4 =5 C4>2;5B2>@8; 53> 8 >= ?@54?>G5; >1@0B8BLAO : B5< 845O<, :>B>@K5 1K;8 87;>65=K 2 ?@56=59 @01>B5 0;C3LO=A:>3>. >A;54=89, G5;>25: 4>1@K9, @KF0@L 1;03>@>4AB20, ?>;=K9 CA5@48O 8 >G5=L CG5=K9, 8 2>2A5 =5 ?@0:B8G5A:89, =0?8A0;, 2A;54AB285 B>3>, >1H8@=CN 70?8A:C =0 $@0=FC7A:>< O7K:5, :>B>@CN !?5@0=A:89 ?5@5;>68; =0 CAA:89, => 2 4@C3>9 D>@<5 8 A> <=>38<8 ?5@5<5=0<8 8 4>?>;=5=8O<8. MB>< 2845 70?8A:0 1K;0 ?>B>< @0AA<0B@8205<0 8 >1AC68205<0, 2 4><0H=8E A>25I0=8OE, 70 >1540<8 C 3@0D0 !525@8=0 >B>F:>3>& 2 :>B>@KE, A25@E !?5@0=A:>3>, CG0AB2>20;8 B>;L:> 04<8@0; 8:>;09 !5<5=>28G >@428=>2, >GC159, 0

0:>=5F 2A5 ?>425@3;>AL >D8F80;L=><>B@C 2 >A>1>< :><8B5B5, A>18@02H525I0=89 8 ?5@5A<>B@>2 >:>=G0B5;L=> 873>B>2;5==K9 ?;0= $8=0=A>2 - 1K;, :0: 2>@8;8, 2@CG5= @>< ;5:A0=4@>< ?@54A540B5;N 3>AC40@AB25==>3> A>25B0 2 A0 >B:@KB8O (1-3> O=20@O 1810-3> 3>40). 1 MB>< ?;0=5 C?><8=0;>AL 8 2 B>< <0=8D5AB5 ?@8 :>B>@>< 1K;> 8740=> >1@07>20=85 A>25B0. {[6]}

 

>B B578A > =5?>A@54AB25==>9 A2O78, B> 5ABL > 70820=88 8 ?5@5@01>B:5 G0AB8 0?8A:8 0@0<78=0 2 AB8E8 (5) (12), 8 >= (B578A) 8<55B =5:>B>@>5 ?>4B25@645=85. 065BAO, >B5F 8 AK= =538=K 3>2>@OB > !?5@0=A:>< 8 53> @5D>@<0E 8 3>2>@OB A;>20<8 0@0<78=0 2 >1@01>B:5 CH:8=0. !>1AB25==>, MB> >A=>2=0O <>59 @01>BK. 0;55 O 1C4C E>48BL 2>:@C3 MB>3> F5=B@0, @07 :>@@5:B=>AB8 2KH5?@82545==>3> CB25@645=8O, B0: 8 > 2>7<>6=KE 87 =53> 2K2>40E.

 

5<54;5==> ?>O2;ONBAO =5A:>;L:> 2>?@>A>2.

- > ?@8=OB>9 2=CB@5==59 E@>=>;>388 @><0=0, AB@>DC MBC 40B8@CNB 1818 1819 3>40<8 (A<. =0?@. >B<0= {[7]}, {[8]}). 0G5< ;N4O< 20-E 3>2>@8BL A;>20<8 0@0<78=0 A;>20<8 0?8A:8, GB> 1K;0 ?>40=0 02B>@>< 04@5A0BC, ;5:A0=4@C I, 25G5@>< 18 <0@B0 1811 3>40? GB> ?@>G8B0=0 1K;0 8 @>< 2 =>GL A 18 =0 19-5 <0@B0 1811 3>40? 0?8A:8, ?>A2OIQ==>9 2> 2B>@>9 A2>59 G0AB8 7;>1>4=52=K< 2>?@>A0< 4=O (E>BO 8 A B>G:8 7@5=8O @CAA:>9 25:>25G=>AB8). ! B5E ?>@ 4> 20-E 3>4>2 <=>3> 2>4K CB5:;>; >1I5AB2> A>2A5< 8=>5; ?@>H;0 2>9=0; !?5@0=A:89 5IQ 2 !818@8; 53> 4>2>5==K5 45;0 5A;8 8 =5 701KBK, B> =8:0: =5 =0 A;CEC?

- 0?8A:0 0@0<78=0 >?C1;8:>20=0 2?5@2K5 2 5@;8=5, 2 1861 3>4C E>BO 8 =5 A>2A5< 8A?@02=>. {[9]} > MB>3>, 4>:C<5=B E>48; B>;L:> 8 2 ;CGH5< A;CG05 2 A?8A:0E GB> 7=0;8 > =Q< >B5F 8 AK= =538=K? A0< 02B>@, B> 5ABL .!.CH:8=? !B@>D0 1-VII =0?8A0=0 8 >B45;0=0 <564C 9 <0O 8 22 >:BO1@O 1823 3>40.

- > GQ< 65 3>2>@OB >B5F 8 AK= =538=K? 0: <>6=> ?@>G8B0BL B5:AB CH:8=0, ?>;030O C:070==K5 70820=8O 87 0?8A:8 0@0<78=0? GQ< =0H, G8B0B5;LA:89 8=B5@5A?

 

2. 20 =538=0.

> ?5@2>?@>AC: :065BAO, GB> AB@>D0 1-VII =5AQB ?@87=0:8 8 4>2>5==>3>, 8 ?>A;52>5==>3> ?5B5@1C@3A:>3> 1KB0, B> 5ABL 8 1810-11-3> 8 1818-3> 3>40. =59 AB@0==K< >1@07>< ?>:070=K 420 =538=0 25@=55 B@8, ?>B> 4;O 1811 3>40 ACI5AB25==>9 AB0=>28BAO D83C@0 =538=0->BF0. 5@5=>A 1-VII 2 1810-11 3>4, B> 5ABL 2> 2@5340 <>;>4>9, H5AB=04F0B8;5B=89 235=89 C2845; A25B 40QB >A@8G5A:>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O @57C;LB0B.

"@048F8>==>5 <5AB> 1-VII 2 E@>=>;>388 @><0=0 1818-1819 3>4. A=>20=8O A;54CNI85: <564C 1815 8 1821 3>4>< =5:>B>@K5 AB>;8G=K5 ;N48, <>;>4K5 8 =5 >G5=L, => 2A5 A 65;0=85< ?5@5<5= 8 ?@>3@5AA0 >@30=87>20;8AL 2 425 3@C??K ;530;L=CN, 1>;55 ;8B5@0BC@=>3> =0?@02;5=8O @70<0A - 8 2 B09=CN (E>BO 1K; MB> A5:@5B >;8H8=5;O) !>N7 ;03>45=AB28O, @CAA:>5 ?>4>185 "C35=41C=40. @70<0A ?@>ACI5AB2>20; A 1815 ?> 1818, !>N7 1;03>45=AB28O - A 1818 ?> 1821.

@02K !>N70 40=K CH:8=K< 2 ><0=5 2 ?8AL<0E: {[10]}

"2>8 C<>7@8B5;L=K5 8 206=K5 @0AAC645=8O ?@8=04;560B : 1818 3>4C. B> 2@53>ABL ?@028; 8 ?>;8B8G5A:0O M:>=><8O 1K;8 2 <>45. K O2;O;8AL =0 10;K =5 A=8<0O H?03 =0< 1K;> =5?@8;8G=> B0=F520BL, 8 =5:>340 70=8<0BLAO 40<0<8. '5ABL 8<5N 4>=5AB8 B515, B5?5@L MB> 2AQ ?5@5<5=8;>AL. $@0=FC7A:89 :04@8;L 70<5=8; 40<0 !<8B0, [2AO:>9] 2>;>G8BAO 8 25A5;8BAO :0: C<55B.

0B5<, A;CG8;>AL B0:, GB> 8 2 @70<0A5 8 2 !>N75 ;03>45=AB28O CG0AB2>20; 8:>;09 20=>28G "C@35=52, :B> - 5A;8 AC48BL ?> :><<5=B0@8N >B<0=0, {[11]} - ?@54?>G8B0; M:>=><8AB>2 ><5@C.

& 2 B5E :@C30E !>N70 ;03>45=AB28O, A :>B>@K<8 A>?@8:0A0;AO (:@C6>: .."C@35=520), C2;5G5=85 0=B8G=>9 ?>M7859 2K7K20;> 8@>=8G5A:>5 >B=>H5=85. 1K;8 8725AB=K A;>20 "C@35=520 2> 2ABC?8B5;L=>9 @5G8 ?@8 ?@85<5 2 @70<0A, 8@>=8G5A:8 ?@>B82>?>AB02;O2H85 15A?>;57=K9, ?> 53> <=5=8N, ?5@52>4 ;804K =548G5< ?>;57=K< A>G8=5=8O< ?> ?>;8B8G5A:>9 M:>=><88: /, 70=8<0O <>8 <...> D8=0=A0<8, 274C<0;, GB> ?@8;8G=55 1K;> 1K ?><>I=8:C 181;8>B5:0@O 8 ?5@52>4G8:C ><5@0, 2<5AB> ;804K, ?5@525AB8 2 AB8E0E, 8 4065 M:70<5B@0<8, =0?@8<5@: Sssmiich Gttliche Ordnung 8;8 Justi Abharidiung von den Steuern und Abgaben, B> 5ABL NAA<8;LE, >65AB25==K9 ?>@O4>:, "@0:B0B > =0;>30E 8 4>E>40E .AB8 ?@>872545=8O M:>=><8AB>2, 87CG02H85AO "C@35=52K< 2 5BB8=35=5&

B<5GC, 2?@>G5<, GB> F8B0B0 MB0 =5 ?>;=0, 0 5A;8 40BL 5Q ?>;=>ABLN M:>=><8ABK NAA<8;LE 8 .AB8 :06CBAO "C@35=52C 5IQ A:CG=55 8 15A?>;57=55 ><5@0. {[12]}

/, 70=8<0O <>8, 2A5340, 4065 8 2 81;8>B5:5, D8=0=A0<8, 274C<0;, GB> ?@8;8G=55 1K;> 1K ?><>I=8:C 181;8>B5:0@O 8 ?5@52>4G8:C ><5@0, 2<5AB> ;804K, ?5@525AB8 2 AB8E0E, 8 4065 M:70<5B@0<8, =0?@8<5@: Sussmilchs Gottliche Ordnung 8;8 Justi Abhandlung von den Steuern und Abgaben 8;8 2>A?5BL @>645=85 A8E A25B8;L=8:>2 ?>;8B8:8. ">340 1K ?5@52>4 A:>@55 4>AB83 F5;8 A2>59 70125=8O, 8 4>AB83 1K B5< C40G=55, G5< 1;865 1K; 1K : ?>4;8==8:C; 0 ?>M<0 @>645=8O A<8@5==> A>H;0 1K =0 25G=>5 C?>:>5=85 2 ;02:C ;07C=>20, A8N B5@?5;82CN <>38;C ABK40 @CAA:>9 A;>25A=>AB8.

0B5<, 2878B=>9 :0@B>G:>9 .."C@35=520 A@548 ;815@0;L=>3> A>>1I5AB20 1K;> >A2>1>645=85 :@5ABLO=. {[13]}

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

2>B, :>340 1K 235=89 =538= AB0; G;5=>< !>N70 ;03>45=AB28O 8 ?>?@>A8; C "C@35=520 8=AB@C:F89: {[14]}

.=>H8, >1C@52059 45OB5;L=>AB8, =5 ?5@5AB020;8 G5@57 A5:@5B0@O B@51>20BL C:070=89, GB> 8< 45;0BL, 60;>20;8AL =0 2K=C645==>5 157459AB285 8 C?@5:0;8 2>6459 2 =54>AB0B:5 @25=8O. & 84O, A >4=>9 AB>@>=K, ?>B@51=>ABL 2 459AB288, 0 A 4@C3>9 =52>7<>6=>ABL 55 C4>2;5B2>@8BL, O @5H8; >1@0B8BL 2=8<0=85 >1I5AB20 =0 ?5G0;L=>5 ?>;>65=85 :@5?>AB=KE; 0 B0: :0: =8:B> =5 A><=520;AO 2 =5A?@0254;82>AB8 @01AB20, O ?@54;030; :064>1O70B5;LAB2> =5<54;5==> A45;0BL 2A5 >B =53> 7028AOI55, GB>1K A?5@20 70:;59<8BL :@5?>AB=>5 ?@02>, 0 70B5< A>459AB2>20BL 53> C=8GB>65=8N.

064K9 87 20A, 3>2>@8; O 8<, 2;0455B 8;8 1C45B 2;045BL :@5?>AB=K<8; 5A;8 2K C65 2;0455B5 8<8, =5<54;5==> >B?CAB8B5 =0 2>;N 42>@>2KE 8 ?@8<8B5 <5@K : >A2>1>645=8N :@5ABLO=, >1@0B82H8AL : ?@028B5;LAB2C, 81> MB> @07@5H5=> 70:>=><. "0:8< >1@07><, =5 B>;L:> =5A:>;L:8<8 @010<8 AB0=5B <5=LH5, => 8 2;0ABL, 8 >1I5AB2> C284OB, GB> ?><5I8:8, ?>;L7CNI85AO 2A5>1I8< C2065=85<, A0<8 E>BOB >A2>1>645=8O :@5?>AB=KE. ">340 845O >B<5=K :@5?>AB=>3> ?@020 ?>;CG8B A8;C 8 C4:@5?8BL A2>N ?@>?>254L ?@8<5@><, O ?@81028;, GB> 3>B>2 40BL A2>8< A;C30< 2>;L=CN, 8 B>BG0A MB> A45;0;. >5 ?@54;>65=85 1K;> ?@8=OB>, => @57C;LB0B 40;5:> =5 >B25G0; <>8< 65;0=8O<.

"5?5@L 2A?><=8<, GB> =538=, AB02 2;045;LF5< 4O4NH:8=>9 45@52=8 /@5<& 10@I8=K AB0@8==>9 / 1@>:>< ;53:8< 70<5=8;/ =51> @01 1;03>A;>28;. @C3 70=AB@C:F8O, >?Q@B0O =0 ;8G=>ABL ."C@35=520, ?@8>1@5B05B ?@>G=CN C1548B5;L=>ABL.

53:> ?>4<5B8BL =5:>B>@CN =54>AB0B>G=>ABL @0AAC645=8O: >BG53> =538= 3>2>@8B >1 40<5 !<8B5 8 1@0=8B $5>:@8B0 A ><5@> 3>, GB> >= ?@>3@5AA825= 0 >B:C40 <, GB> >= ?@>3@5AA825=? BB>3>, GB> >= 3>2>@8B >1 40<5 !<8B5 8 1@0=8B $5>:@8B0 A ><5@>< 8 5IQ >= ?5@52Q; :@5ABLO= A 10@I8=K =0 >1@>:. >;>68B5;L=KE A2545=89 > ?@8=04;56=>AB8 235=8O : !>N7C ;03>45=AB28O =5B, 8 157 ?5@52>40 :@5ABLO= =0 >1@>:, @0AAC645=85 MB> AB0=>28BAO 35@<5B8G5A:8<.

#2K, => A?>A>1 278<0=8O =538=K< D5>40;L=>9 @5=BK =5 2?>;=5 3>2>@8B >1 53> 01>;8F8>=87<5, > GQ< O A:06C 2 A2>Q< <5AB5.

> ?5@2K5 4 AB@>:8 1-VII GQB:> C:07K20NB =0 1818 3>4.

(1) KA>:>9 AB@0AB8 =5 8<5O
(2) ;O 72C:>2 687=8 =5 I048BL,
(3) 5 <>3 >= O<10 >B E>@5O,
(4) 0: B;8G8BL.

A;8 (GB> :065BAO >G5284=K<) 2:;NG8BL 2 <>;>4>3> CH:8=0, MB> 1818 3>4 :>340 (A =5:>B>@K< ?@81;865=85<) >4=>2@5<5==> ACI5AB2>20;8 8 @70<0A 8 !>N7 ;03>45=AB28O. ">340 !25@G>: A>B>20@8I8 ?> @70<0AC 2?>;=5 8 A>25@H5==> 5AB5AB25==> <>3;8 18BLAO =04 >=538=A:8< >1@07>20=85< =0 70A540=8OE MB>3> :@C6:0, A ?>4>10NI8<8 >AB@>B0<8 8 2AO:8< ?@8;560=85<. !B@>:8 (1)-(4) ?@52>AE>4=> ?>4E>4OB : @70<0AC 8 =5 8<5NB =8:0:>9 >?>@K 2 1810-11 3>40E CH:8= B>340 1K; 5IQ @51Q=>:.

, B5< =5 <5=55, :0: O ?>AB0@0NAL ?>:070BL =865 AB@>:8 (5)-(14) A0B=K< >1@07>< ;>60BAO 2 ?5@8>4 1810-11 3>4>2. ">340 :07K205BAO ;81> :>;;5:B82=K< =0720=85< ?@>A25IQ==KE 2 ;8B5@0BC@5 ;N459 87 AB>;8G=>3> A25B0, ;81> 4>2>5==K< CH:8=K< 2 2>>1@065=88 CH:8=0 25I5AB25==>3>, ;81> GB> A:>@55 1-VII 2K3;O48B =5:8< 18=>:C;O@=K< 273;O4>< 2 425 2@5<5==K5 B>G:8.

>:0 65 ?>AK;:0 B0:0O: @073>2>@ (1-VII) ?@>8AE>48B 2 1810-1811 3>4C. =538=C >:>;> 16 ;5B; >= :0: @07 70:>=G8; 2>A?8B0=85 8 :0: B> 1K;> ?@8=OB> - A>1@02H8AL 68BL A0<>AB>OB5;L=>, 70?@0H8205B C >BF0 A>>B25BAB2CNI89 1N465B.

 

"5?5@L 709<8 42C?@>A0<8.

 

3. (0B:>5 >A=>20=85.

B> 7=0; > 0?8A:5 8 70G5< =538=K 8A?>;L7CNB 5Q A;>20 8 D>@2:8 2 @073>2>@5 > B5:CI8E 45;0E?

G5=L ?>E>65, GB> 2 1811 3>4C (=0G8=0O, 5AB5AB25==>, A 18 <0@B0) > 0?8A:5 7=0;8 ;8HL G5BK@5 G5;>25:0: A0< 0@0<78=; 53> 65=0, :0B5@8=0 =4@552=0; A5AB@0 ;5:A0=4@0 I, :0B5@8=0 02;>2=0; 8 8 @.

>3>48=:

&=8:B> =5 7=0; 4065 > ACI5AB2>20=88 MB>9 0?8A:8; A0 > =59 =8:>340 =5 A;KE0;8. 0?8A:0 =0945=0 A;CG09=> 2 1836-< 3>4C, G5@57 4>;3>5 2@5 A<5@B8 0@0<78=0 8 @0 ;5:A0=4@0. 204F0BL ?OBL ;5B >=0 A:@K20;0AL ?>4 A?C4><& {[15]}

@>B:

&#5760O 8 A0<&, >= @5H8;AO ?>?@>A8BL C 5;8:>9 =O38=8 A2>59 0?8A:8, => CA;KH0;, GB> >=0 2 E>@>H8E @C:0E&

0@0<78= 1K; B0: A>25AB;82 8 45;8:0B5=, GB> =5 >AB028; C A51O :>?88 A 0?8A:8. > A0<>9 A<5@B8 A2>59 >= =5 7=0;, :C40 >=0 4520;0AL; >AC40@L =8:>340 =5 3>2>@8; > =59, 40 8 A0< 0@0<78= =5 ?>72>;O; A515 C?><8=0BL >1 MB>< 45;5, 4065 2 @073>2>@5 A A0 1;87:8<8. ">;L:> ?> :>=G8=5 ;5:A0=4@0 02;>28G0, >= ?@>A8; ;C4>20 8 0H:>20 ?>8A:0BL 0?8A:8 <564C 1C<030<8 @0, :>B>@K9 8< ?>@CG5=> 1K;> @07>1@0BL. > >=8 5O =5 =0H;8&

@0D ;C4>2 4C<0;, GB> 2?>A;54AB288 0?8A:0 0@0<78=0 >BKA:0;0AL 2 1C<030E @0:G5520, ?>B>, GB> >=0 A45;0;0AL 8725AB=>N 2A:>@5 ?>A;5 A<5@B8 MB>3> 2@5<5=I8:0. > ?> 4@C3> A2845B5;LAB2C (@5G0), >=0 @0A?@>AB@0=8;0AL 87 @C: ?>:>9=>3> >@=0, 1K2H53> A5:@5B0@5< 5;8:>9 =O38=8 :0B5@8=K 02;>2=K, 8;8 CG8B5;5< 45B59 5O. 0?8A:0 =0?5G0B0=0, E>BO =5 A>2A5< 8A?@02=>, 2 5@;8=5 1861 3. {[16]}

 

!45;0;0AL 8725AB=>N ?>A;5 A<5@B8 @0:G5520 7=0G8B, 2 1834 3>4C. 5@2CN ?>?KB:C ?C1;8:0F88 0?8A>: ?@54?@8=O; A0< .!.CH:8=.

...20-3> A5=BO1@O 1836 3. ?>?5G8B5;L !.-5B5@1C@3A:>3> #G51=>3> :@C30 :=O7L >=4C:>2->@A0:>2 >1@0B8;AO A A;54CNI59 >D8F80;L=>9 1C<03>9 2 ;02=>5 #?@02;5=85 &5=7C@K:

. &5=7>@ @K;>2 4>:;04K20; !.-5B5@1C@3A:><8B5BC > ?>ABC?82H5< : =5<>B@5=85 >B@K2:5 87 A>G8=5=8O ?>:>9=>3> 8AB>@8>3@0D0 . . 0@0<78=0, ?>4 703;0285<: 4@52=59 8 =>2>9 >AA88, 2 5O ?>;8B8G5A:>< 8 3@0640=A:>< >B=>H5=8OE. 740B5;L !>2@5<5==8:0, ?@54?>;030O A8< ?@>872545=85< ?5@0 25;8:>3> ?8A0B5;O C:@0A8BL A;54CNI89 =><5@ A2>53> ?5@8>48G5A:>3> 8740=8O...

>

@>2, :>B>@K9 @>2=> <5AOF B>B 8<5=8 ;02=>3> #?@02;5=8O &5=7C@K ?@54>AB02;O; ?@02> ><8B5BC @0AA<>B@5BL AB0BLN 0@0<78=0 =0 >1I8E F5=7C@=KE ?@028;0E, 8725AB8; 28-3> >:BO1@O ?>?5G8B5;O !.-5B5@1C@3A:>3> #G51=>3> :@C30, GB> B0: :0: C?>G8=8B5;5< 4;O =0?5G0B0=8O, 8 ?@8 687=8 8740=0 8< 2 A25B =5 1K;0, B> ;02=>5 #?@02;5=85 &5=7C@K ?@87=0;>, GB> 8 =K=5 =5 A;54C5B 4>72>;OBL 55 ?5G0B0BL.

;8HL ?>A;5 A<5@B8 CH:8=0:

70A540=88 29-3> <0@B0 1837 3. >A?>48= @54A540B5;L ?@54;>68; ;02=> 4>=5A5=88 &5=7>@0 @K;>20, :>B>@K9, @0AA<>B@52 ?@54AB02;5==CN 2=>2L 4;O ?><5I5=8O 2 8740=88: !>2@5<5==8: @C:>?8AL: AB0@>9 8 =>2>9 >AA88, A>G. . . 0@0<78=0, =0H5;, GB> 87 =5O 8A:;NG5=K 2A5 <5AB0, :>B>@K5 ?@5645 >1@0B8;8 =0 A51O 2=8<0=85 &5=7C@K, 8 GB> B5?5@L 2 MB>9 AB0BL5 =5 A>45@68BAO =8G53>, =5A>3;0A=>3> A F5=7C@=K<8 ?@028;0<8.

;02=>5 #?@02;5=85 &5=7C@K ?@87=0;>, GB> ?>?8AL 2 B5?5@5H=5< 5O 2845 <>65B ?>72>;5=0 1KBL. {[17]}

 

".>., 5ABL ?>;>68B5;L=K5 A2545=8O > 7=0:>9 2 1836 3>4C. > 284=K5 8AA;54>20B5;8 687=8 8 B2>@G5AB20 0@0<78=0 8 CH:8=0 >B<5G0NB 2>7<>6=>5 7=0:> ?>MB0 A 0?8A:>9 8 4> 1836 3>40.

.-. 0FC@>:

... 2 0?8A:5 > 4@52=59 8 =>2>9 >AA88 0@0<78=0; B5:AB 55 AB0; 8725AB5= CH:8=C =5 @0=55 1836 3., => <=>385 87 55 8459 1K;8 2>A?@8=OBK 8< 2 682>< >1I5=88 A 02B>@><. {[18]}

...>B<0=:

... ?8AL<5 >B 10 8N;O 1826 3. >= ?8A0; O75< 53> [0@0<78=0] 687=L, MB> 1C45B 13-9 B>< CAA:>9 AB>@88; 0@0<78= ?@8=04;568B 8AB>@88. > A:068 2A5; 4;O MB>3> 4>;6=> B515 8=>340 C?>B@518BL B> :@0A=>@5G85, :>B>@>5 >?@545;O5B 0;LO=8 2 ?8AL<5 > F5=7C@5...

 

0;55, :><<5=B0@89 >B<0=0: ... . . >470;52A:89, :><<5=B8@CO ?8AL<0 CH:8=0, 70<5G05B: 'B> E>B5; 2K@078BL CH:8=, 3>2>@O A:068 2A5, 4>3040BLAO B@C4=> (CH:8= . !. 8AL<0. .; ., 1928. ". 2. !. 169). 564C B5< >G5284=>, GB> @5GL <>65B 84B8 B>;L:> > 0?8A:5 > 4@52=59 8 =>2>9 >AA88 8 :>=D;8:B5 0@0<78=0 A ;5:A0=4@>< I 2 1819 3. 8 > B><, GB> :0:85-B> A2545=8O > 0?8A:5, 0 2>7<>6=>, 8 > =5=88 @CAA:>3> 3@0640=8=0 C CH:8=0 2 MB>B ?5@8>4 C65 1K;8. {[19]}

5AL<0 8=B5@5A=>, GB> "><0H52A:89 2 :=835 "CH:8=" 2848B 2 =5>:>=G5==KE "0<5B:0E ?> @CAA:>9 8AB>@88 XVIII 25:0" CH:8=0 (40B8@>20==KE 2 023CAB0 1822 3>40) ?@O;5<8:C A "0?8A:>9" 0@0<78=0. {[20]}

 

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

CH:8= A <>;>4KE ;5B 1K; ?@8=OB 2 4><5 0@0<78=0. @8=04;5602 1;87:>-7=0:><><59AB2C, >= =0H5; 2 0@0<78=5 ?5@2>3> ?>:@>28B5;O 8 A>25B=8:0, :>B>@>3> G0AB> 2?@>G5< 2K2>48; 87 B5@?5=8O. &0@A:>< A5;5 2AO:>9 45=L, ?>A;5 :;0AA>2, ?@81530; >= : 0@0<78=K< 87 8F5O, ?@>2>48; C =8E 25G5@0, @0AA:07K20; 8 HCB8;, 70;820OAL 3@><:8< E>E>B><, => ;N18; A;CH0BL 8:>;0O 8E09;>28G0, 8 C=8<0;AO, ;8HL B>;L:> 273;O=5B >= AB@>3>, 8;8 A:065B A;>2> 0B5@8=0 =4@552=0; >= ;N18; 3C;OBL A 53> A5<59AB2><, 8 83@0BL A 45BL<8; @5728;AO, :@82;O;AO, 4>A0640O <02=5, :>B>@0O 15A?@5AB0==> =0 =53> :@8G0;0: 40 ?>;=>B5 ;5:A0=4@ !5@35528G, 2K C@>=8B5, 2K CH815B5... GB> MB> B0:>5, =8 =0 GB> =5 ?>E>65, ?5@5AB0=LB5 H0;8BL!8 H0;C= C=8<0;AO. 4=064K A;CG8;0AL A =8< 1>;LH0O 1540, 70 :>B>@CN >= ?>?;0B8;AO 4>@>3>. = =0?8A0; 87 8F5O 420 ?8AL<0, >4=> : 0B5@8=5 =4@552=5 0@0<78=>9 ?> :0:>9 B> =04>1=>AB8, a 4@C3>5 : A2>5<> @07=KE H0;>ABOE, <>65B 1KBL, =5 A>2A5< ?@8;8G=KE, 40 8 ?5@5?CB0; 04@5AK: ?>A;54=55 ?8AL<> ?>?0;> 2 @C:8 0B5@8=K =4@552=K. 8:>;09 8E09;>28G @0AA5@48;AO, 8 :>340 ?@8H5; CH:8=, A45;0; 53>9 2K3>2>@ 70 =5?@>AB8B5;L=CN 25B@5=>ABL. CH:8= AB>O; ?@54 =8< :0: 2:>?0==K9, ?>BC?82 3;070, 8 24@C3 70;8;AO A;570<8... {[21]}

 

-B>, @07C<55BAO, 848;;8O; A>2@5<5==>5 7=0=85 >A25I05B 8AB>@8N 8E 4@C61K 8 @07@K20 :C40 :0: =5<8;>A5@4=55, => 2AN4C ;8 C<5AB=0 =03>B0 ?@024K? =8 1K;8 1;87:8; 70B5< @07>H;8AL.

>A;54=55: 7=0O, :0: 4>B>H=> 0@0<78= @01>B0; =04 @C:>?8AO<8, <=5=85 @>B0 (0@0<78= 1K; B0: A>25AB;82 8 45;8:0B5=, GB> =5 >AB028; C A51O :>?88 A 0?8A:8) C1548B5;L=K< =5 2K3;O48B. '5@=>2K5 :>?88 MB>3> 206=59H53>, >BG0O==>3> 4;O 0@0<78=0 4>:C<5=B0 :06CBAO A>25@H5==> 5AB5AB25==K< 45;><.

 

7 A:070==>3> <>6=> A45;0BL A;54CNI89 2K2>4: A>25@H5==> =52>7<>6=>, GB>1K 2 1811 3>4C >B5F 8 AK= =538=K (;81> :B>-B> >48= 87 =8E) 7=0;8 B5:AB 0?8A:8. > 5ABL 25@>OB=>ABL, GB> B5:AB MB>B 7=0; 02B>@ 235=8O =538=0 8 >= 2>>@C605B A2>8E 35@>52 <8 8 4065 F8B0B>9 87 :0@0<78=A:>3> 4>:C<5=B0.

0G5

0B5<, GB> MB> 0@0<78=.

0?8A:0 - 4>:C<5=B =5?@527>94Q==KE 4>AB>8=AB2. = >?8AK205B (2 ?5@2>9 G0AB8) 8AB>@8N >AA88 >B 8AB>:>2 4> A>2@5<5==>AB8 8 (2> 2B>@>9 G0AB8) 7;>1>4=52=K5 3>AC40@AB25==K5 45;0 A 15A?>4>1=K<8 GQB:>ABLN 8 ;0?840@=>ABLN. >=B5=L, F8B8@CO :>3>-B>, 3>2>@8;, GB>: ?>4>1=> B>;>A, A60BK9 2 C7:>< :0=0;5 B@C1K, 2K@K205BAO 87 =55 1>;55 <>3CG8< 8 @57:8<, B0:& 8 =0H0 <8 ?>MB8G5A:8<8 @07<5@0<8, CAB@5<;O5BAO 3>@074> ?>@K28AB55 8 ?>B@OA05B <5=O A 1>;LH59 A8;>9. 0?8A:0 0@0<78=0 5ABL 8<5==> B0:>9 :0=0; B@C1K; 8AB>@8O >AA88 4> ;5:A0=4@0 8 45;0 ;5:A0=4@0 4> 1811 3>40, AB5A=Q==K5 <0;>9 D>@<>9, CAB@5<;ONBAO =0 G8B0B5;O A =5>1K:=>25==>9 <>ILN 8 @57:>ABLN. 0:>9 <0B5@80; 1>;55 3>48BAO 4;O >?8A0=8O >1AB>OB5;LAB2 1810-11 3>40? '53> 5IQ 1K;> 65;0BL 02B>@C @><0=0 235=89 =538=, 4;O :>B>@>3> 2@5 1K;> 8AB>@859, 2 ;CGH5< A;CG05 45BA:8<8 2>A?><8=0=8O<8?

0B5<, MB>B :>=F5=B@0B 0@0<78=0 AC4O ?> <=5=8N >@D0 ?@52>AE>4=> >B@060; >1I5AB25==K5 =0AB@>5=8O 2@5<5=8.

&70?8A:0 0@0<78=0 8<55B 4;O =0A, ?>B><:>2, 1>;LHCN 8AB>@8G5A:CN F5=C, 2>2A5 =5 ?> 2=CB@5==5AB>8=AB2C 8 =5 ?> :@0A=>@5G82>65=8N 2 =59 8=48284C0;L=KE 53> :0: 8A:CA=0O :> 3>, GB> >= A;KH0; 2>:@C3 A51O. 0@0<78=, 3>@074> 1>;55 ;8B5@0B>@ =565;8 G5;>25: 3>AC40@AB25==K9 8;8 2>>1I5 ?>;8B8G5A:89, 3>2>@8; 745AL, @07C<55BAO, =5 >4=> A2>5. A;8 A>2@5<5==0O 5 70?8A:5 A2>5 A>1AB25==>5 B5<=>5 =5C4>2>;LAB285, >1;5G5==>5 2 D>@9 @5G8, B> =5B A><=5=8O, GB>, 2708<=>, 8 B0 A@540, 2 :>B>@>9 >= 68;, =5 <>3;0 >AB0BLAO 157 H8@>:>3> =0 =53> 2;8O=8O. MB>< A AB0@>9 8 =>2>9 >AA88, ?@54AB02;OO A>1>N >1I89, B0: A:070BL, 8B>3 B>;:>2 B>340H=59 :>=A5@20B82=>9 >??>78F88 8 B5E <0AA, :>B>@K5, >125BH02, B@51>20;8 >1=>2;5=8O, 5IQ 1>;55 ?>4B25@6405B <8 2KA:070==CN, GB> ;5:A0=4@ 8 ?5@2K9 53> <8=8AB@, 2 ?>@K25 2KA>:8E A2>8E C2;5G5=89, >?5@560;8 2>7@0AB A2>53> =0@>40, 4065 <564C >1@07>20==59H8<8 53> :;0AA0<8. {[22]}

 

>2B>@NAL: :0:>9 8AB>@8G5A:89 <0B5@80; AB0; 1K ;CGH5 4;O ?5@540G8 >1I5AB25==KE =0AB@>5=89 2 :@0BG09H59 4;O >4=>9-548=AB25==>9 AB@>DK - D>@<5?

"5?5@L =04> ?>=OBL, > GQ< HQ; @073>2>@ <564C >BF>< 8 AK=><.

 

4. CG8 0AA83=0F89.

>MB-83@>:, > 525@;59->@0F89,
@>83@K20; BK :CG:8 0AA83=0F89,
A5@51@>, =0A;5485 >BF>2&
.!.CH:8=

 

@54?>;030N, GB> >=8 3>2>@8;8 > 45=L30E.

1810-11 33. =538=-AK=, =0G0; 682> 8=B5@5A>20BLAO A>AB>O=85< A5<59=KE D8=0=A>2 ?>4ABC?0;> 53> H5AB=04F0B8;5B85 0 A =8< 8 =C640 2 >B45;L=>< 1N465B5. AB>G=8:>< A5<59=>3> 4>E>40 1K; >B5F, 0 B>B ?>;CG0; 45=L38 87 B@QE 8AB>G=8:>2.

 

(0) 0;>20=85 G8=>2=8:0;

(1) >E>4 >B 75<;52;045=8O

(2) B 709<>2, B0: :0: 68; 4>;30<8.

 

C=:B (2) =52K@078< 2 B>G=KE F8D@0E, E>BO 4>?CA:05B =5:>B>@>5 B>;:>20=85 8 MB> 1C45B A45;0=> 2 A2>Q< <5AB5. > (0) 8 (1) ?@83>4=K 4;O 2@07C<8B5;L=>3> 0=0;870. A5 A;54CNI85 @0AAC645=8O =0F5;5=K =0 2KOA=5=85 D8=0=A>2KE >1AB>OB5;LAB2 =538=0->BF0 2 1810-1811 3>4C; :065BAO, GB> 745AL <>6=> ?>;CG8BL 8 ;N1>?KB=K5 2K2>4K >1I53> E0@0:B5@0.

 

4.1. '5;>25: - G8=>2=8:.

?@8 725740E =5 2A5 1>30BK, <564C =0<8&

@54?>;030N, GB> =538=-AB0@H89 :0: 8 !5@359 L2>28G CH:8= 4> A0<>3> 2KE>40 2 >BAB02:C 1K; G8=>< VI :;0AA0 "015;8 > @0=30E. >G5B> 2 AB@>D5 I-VII ?> ><5@ 8 $5>:@8B.

'B>1K ?>;CG8BL 1>;LH55 60;>20=85 70 G8=>2=K9 B@C4, >B5F 235=8O 4>;65= 1K; ?5@59B8 =0 A;54CNICN ABC?5=L "015;8 8 70=OBL =>2CN 4>;6=>ABL. > 9 023CAB0 1809 3>40, ?5@5E>4 MB>B 7028A5; ;8HL >B 2KA;C38 ;5B 8 ?@8;56=>AB8 2 @01>B5, => 2 C:070==CN 2KH5 40BC A>AB>O;AO #:07 !5=0BC, 704C<0==K9 8 A>AB02;5==K9 8 @>< 8 !?5@0=A:8< > B><, GB>

&5. !B0BA:85 !>25B=8:8 =8:B> =5 <>65B 1KBL ?@>87254Q= ?> >4=8< ;5B0< A;C61K. ?@>872>4AB2C A5B@51=> A>2>:C?=>5 ?@54AB02;5=85 A;54CNI8E C4>AB>5=89: 1) A2845B5;LAB2> > B><, GB> ?@54AB02;O52=8:, ?> :@09=59 <5@5 10 ;5B ?@>4>;60; A;C61C A @52=>ABLN 8 CA5@485<. 2) 'B> 2 G8A;5 @07=KE 4>;6=>AB59, ?> <5=LH59 <5@5, 420 3>40 1K; >= 459AB28B5;L=> 2 :0:><-;81> <5AB5 !>25B=8:><, @>:C@>@><, @028B5;5< 0=F5;O@88 8;8 0G0;L=8:>< :0:>9-;81> ?>;>65==>9 ?> HB0BC -:A?548F88. 3) !25@E A53> >= 4>;65= ?@54AB028BL 0BB5AB0B #=825@A8B5B0 >1 CA?5H=>< CG5=88 8;8 8A?KB0=88 53> 2 =0C:0E, @0640=A:>9 A;C615 A2>9AB25==KE. 4) >;65= ?@54AB028BL >4>1@5=85 0G0;LAB20, 2 :>5< >= A;C68B& {[23]}

 

B=K=5 8 =0 =5:>B>@>5 2@5<5@ 8 $5>:@8B 2AB0;8 ?@53@04>9 =0 >1K:=>25==>< ?@5645 ?CB8 : 60;>20=LN G8=>2=8:0 V :;0AA0, B> 5ABL 70B@C4=8;8 ?@>872>4AB2> :>;;56A:8E A>25B=8:>2 (VI :;0AA) 2 AB0BA:85 A>25B=8:8 (V :;0AA). !>1AB25==>, ><5@0 8 $5>:@8B0 :0: B0:>2KE 2 ?@>3@0<<5 M:70<5=>2 =5 1K;> AB@>A;>285 C2;5:;> 745AL 0@0<78=0 70 ?@545;K 8AB8=K. ?@>3@0<<5 =5 1K;>, <564C ?@54<5B0<8 8A?KB0=89, =8 @5G5A:>3> O7K:0, =8 E8<88 - >B>720;AO >@D {[24]}, => 87 ?5A=8 =5 2K:8=CBL A;>2. =538=K< 1K;> 70 GB> 1@0=8BL MB8E =5AG0AB=KE 45OB5;59 0=B8G=>AB8, 81> <0B5@80;L=>5 ?>;>65=85 A5B =8E AB@040;>.

0:>5 60;>20=85 <>3 ?>;CG0BL AB>;8G=K9 G8=>2=8: VI :;0AA0? -B> ACI5AB25==> 7028A5;> >B <5AB0 53> @01>BK.

"0:, 48@5:B>@0 >AC40@AB25==>3> 0AA83=0F8>==>3> 10=:0 ?>;CG0;8 >B 1200 4> 1500 @C1;59 2 3>4 (1804) {[25]}; AB0@H89 1CE30;B5@ -:A?548F88 > 3>AC40@AB25==KE 4>E>40E 2000 @C1;59 2 3>4 (1808) {[26]}; ?@028B5;L :0=F5;O@88 (B0< 65) 1800; A5=0BA:89 M:75:CB>@ >B 600 4> 1000 @C1;59 2 3>4 (1809) {[27]}.

$.$.835;L, 0?8A:8 {[28]}

& >340 2 1807 3>4C :C@A =0 72>=:CN <>=5BC AB0; 24@C3 C?040BL 8 A;C60I85 =0G0;8 ?>;CG0BL B>;L:> G5B25@BCN 4>;N ?@>B82 ?@56=53>, B>340 154=>ABL A45;0;0AL 2=>2L ?@54;>3>< 8 8728=5=85< 8E 604=>AB8. & ! @0A?@>AB@0=5=85< ?@>A25I5=8O, A C<=>65=85< @>A:>H8 CA>25@H5=AB2>20;>AL 8 8A:CAAB2> =5?@0254=K< >1@07>< 4>1K20BL 45=L38; 40;55 =K=5H=53> >=>, :065BAO, 84B8 =5 <>65B. &

AA83=0F8>==K9 @C1;L, :>B>@K9 2 A5=BO1@5 5I5 AB>8; 90 :>?55: A5@51@><, : 1 O=20@O 1808 3>40 C?0; =0 A5N 4020;8 70 =53> B>;L:> 50 :>?55: A5@51@><; 40;55 8 1>;55, G5@57 B@8 3>40 A5@51@O=K9 @C1;L E>48; 2 G5BK@5 @C1;O 0AA83=0F8O<8. ;O ?><5I8:>2, 2;045;LF52 4><>2 8 :C?5G5AB20 B0:>5 ?>=865=85 :C@A0 =5 8<5;> =8:0:8E 2@54=KE ?>A;54AB289, 81> F5=K =0 2A5 ?@>4C:BK ?> B>9 65 <5@5 AB0;8 2>72KH0BLAO. ;O :0?8B0;8AB>2 65 8 ;N459, 682CI8E >4=8< 60;>20=L5<, 1K;> >=> ACI8< @07>@5=85<; :065BAO, A MB>3> 2@5<5=8 =0G0;8 G8=>2=8:8 2>7=03@0640BL A51O =570:>==K<8 ?@81KB:0<8. N4O<, =5402=> :C?82H8< 2 4>;3 8<5=8O =0 0AA83=0F88, ?>=865=85 :C@A0 ?>A;C68;> >1>30I5=85< 8 A?0A5=85< 2>>1I5 2A5< 704>;602H8<.

 

&8B0B0 87 835;O 40QB =0< 5IQ >48= D0:B 2@5<5=8 60;>20=85 G8=>2=8:0< ;81> =5 8=45:A8@>20;>AL 2>>1I5, ;81> ?>2KH0;>AL =5 4>;6=K< >1@07><, =5 CA?520;> 70 ?040NI8< :C@A>< 0AA83=0F8>==>3> @C1;O.

071@>A 2 60;>20=8OE >4=>:;0AA=KE G8=>2=8:>2 (>B 600 4> 2000 @C1;59, :0: <) ?>4<5B8; 8 0@0<78= 2 0?8A:5&

K=5 =5 B>;L:> 2>8=A:85, => 8 3@0640=A:85 G8=>2=8:8 E>BOB 68BL 1>;LH8< 4><>< =0 AG5B 3>AC40@AB20. :0:0O ?5AB@>B0: ;N48 2 >4=>< G8=5 8<5NB AB>;L @07;8G=K5 60;>20=LO, GB> >4=> 5ABL, 0 4@C3>9 <>65B 4020BL ;0:>154K; 81> ?5@2K9 A;C68B ?> AB0@K<, 0 2B>@>9 ?> =>2K< HB0B0<, ?5@2K9 2 !5=0B5, 2 3C15@=88, 0 2B>@>9 C <8=8AB@0 2 :0=F5;O@88, 8;8 345-=81C4L 2 =>2>< <5AB5. {[29]}

 

0< >AB0QBAO 27OBL =5GB> A@54=55 8 ?>;>68BL =538=C-AB0@H5 60;>20=85 2 1500 0AA83=0F8>==KE @C1;59 2 3>4.

 

4.2. '5;>25:-?><5I8:.

>2>@OB 8 A?@0254;82> GB> CH:8= 2 :0:>9-B> <5@5 ?5@5=QA =0 A58 A>1AB25==K5 687=5==K5 >1AB>OB5;LAB20. 54 CH:8=0 ?>45;8; >;LH55 >;48=> ?>?>;0<: G0ABL >;48=0 8 8AB5=Q2> !5@35N L2>28GC, 2B>@CN G0ABL >;48=0 4O45 ?>MB0, 0A8;8N L2>28GC. 5 B> 65 8 >B5F =538=0? CABL 4O4O A0; B>340 =0< <>6=> >B=5AB8 8<5=8O =538=0-AB0@H53> : 45@52=5, 345 A:CG0; 235=89, 8<5==> 2 A:>2A:CN 3C15@=8N, :0: MB> ?@8=OB> AG8B0BL.

& ?>72>;O5B G8B0B5;N A45;0BL 2K2>4, GB> 45@525=A:0O G0ABL @><0=0 @0728205BAO 2 A525@>-70?04=>< :>=F5 >AA88, 25@>OB=55 2A53> 2 A:>2A:>9 3C15@=88. {[30]}

 

>AK;:0 MB0 =5 >1O70B5;L=0. K <>65< A ;Q3:>ABLN ?><5AB8BL 8<5=8O >BF0 =538=0 2 ;N1>9 @09>= >AA88 :@><5 >2>@>AA88 8 !818@8 - A ?@8<5@=> >48=0:>2K<8 2K2>40<8, => @01>B0BL A >4=>9 3C15@=859 =5 2 ?@8<5@ ;53G5 8 =03;O4=55.

 

4.3. !K@>9 C3>; >AA88.

> BK 3C15@=8O A:>2A:0O
"5?;8F0 N=KE 4=59 <>8E
'B> <>65B 1KBL, AB@0=0 3;CE0O
5A=>A=59 10@KH5=L B2>8E?

 

A:>2A:0O 3C15@=8O, AK@>9 C3>; >AA88; ;5A8AB0O, 1>;>B8AB0O, A> A:C4=K<8 ?>G20<8. =0 2E>48;0 2 !525@>-0?04=K9 @09>= 2<5AB5 A >23>@>4A:>9 8 !0=:B-5B5@1C@3A:>9 3C15@=859, => @57:> >B;8G0;0AL >B =8E 2 E>7O9AB25==>< >B=>H5=88.

@5645 2A53>, A:>2A:0O 3C15@=8O 1K;0 8 >AB0;0AL 4> A2>1>645=8O @538>=>< A ?@5>1;040NI8< 10@I8==K< E>7O9AB2><. {[31]}

"01;8F0 1.

!525@>-70?04=K5 3C15@=88

1765 1767 33.

1858 3.

1765 1767 33.

1858

1765 1767 33.

1858

10@I8=0

>1@>:

10@I8=0

>1@>:

10@I8=0

>1@>:

CH 3> ?>;0

?@>F5=B0E

5B5@1C@3A:0O

-

-

20 237

45 623

-

30,7

-

69,3

>23>@>4A:0O

91 335

85 395

79 632

66 939

51,7

54,3

48,3

45,7

A:>2A:0O

108 576

16 847

133 357

40 416

86,6

76,7

13,4

23,3

 

>-2B>@KE, A:>2A:0O 3C15@=8O =5 1K;0 ?@>2>9.

A:>2A:>9 3C15@=88 2 >B;8G85 >B 5B5@1C@3A:>9 8 >23>@>4A:>9, =575<;545;LG5A:85 ?@>;CG8;8 A:>;L:>-=81C4L H8@>:>3> @0728B8O. @>1AB25==>< A@ :@09=5 >3@0=8G5=K. =8 A;C60B =5 1>;55 :0: B>;L:> 4>102>G=K<8 ?>A>18O<8 : 3;02=><;545;8N. {[32]}

;O =0A MB> ?@8=F8?80;L=>5 >1AB>OB5;LAB2> 8 ?CBL : 25;8:>1;53G5=8N 7040G8. K 254L E>B8< C7=0BL 4>E>4 =538=0-AB0@H53> >B 8<5=8O 2 1810-1133, 0 A45;0BL MB>, 2 >1I5< A;CG05, =5;53:>.

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

 

B@5BL8E, >A=>2=K<8 ?@>4C:B0<8 75<;545;8O A:>2A:>9 3C15@=88 1K;8 E;51 8 ;Q=.

A:>2A:0O 3C15@=8O >B=>A8;0AL : G8A;C =5G5@=>75<=KE 3C15@=89 >AA88. @8@>4=K5 CA;>28O 55 ?@8 ?@8<5=O2H8EAO B>340 ?@8<8B82=KE A?>A>10E >1@01>B:8 75<;8 1K;8 <0;> 1;03>?@8OB=K 4;O A5;LA:>3> E>7O9AB20. 5A<>B@O =0 MB>, 8<5==> A5;LA:>5 E>7O9AB2> O2;O;>AL 745AL >A=>2=K< 70=OB85<. 081>;55 @0A?@>AB@0=5==K<8 A5;LA:>E>7O9AB25==K<8 :C;LBC@0<8 1K;8 @>6L, ?H5=8F0, >25A 8 >A>15==> ;5=, :>B>@K< 745AL 70=8<0;8AL A 4@52=59H8E 2@5<5=. {[33]}

B<5B8< MB> >1AB>OB5;LAB2>.

"0: :0: 3C15@=8O 1K;0 =5?@>20O, ?@>254Q< >F5=:C ?> A0<>7@0G=>A>1C ?>;CG5=8O 2K3>4K >B 8<5=8O ?> >1@>:C.

> !5<52A:>1@>: 2 :>=F5 F0@AB2>20=8O :0B5@8=K ?>4>HQ; : ?OB8 @C1;O< A 4CH8. {[34]} > 40==K<, ?@82545==K< C !:@518F:>3>, {[35]} >1@>: A BO3;0 (2,08 4CH8 2 A@54=5< ?> 3C15@=88) A>AB02;O; 2 1859 3>4C 23@ 80 :>?, B> 5ABL ?@8<5@=> 11 @C1;59 A5@51@>< A 4CH8. !5<52A:89 AC4O ?> 2A5 53> F8D@0 4>;6=0 1KBL A:>@@5:B8@>20=0, ?@8<5@=> :0: 80 :>?55: A5@51@>< 70 0AA83=0F8>==K9 @C1;L (> :C@A0E 0AA83=0F8>==>3> @C1;O 1C45B A:070=> =865). ".>., A 90-E 3>4>2 4> 1859 3>40 >1@>: C25;8G8;AO A 4 @C1;59 A5@51@>< 4> 11 @C1;59 A5@51@><, GB>, 2 ;8=59=>9 8=B5@?>;OF88 40QB 4;O 1810-11 3>4>2 >:>;> 5,65 @C1;59 A5@51@>< 8;8 22 0AA83=0F8>==KE @C1;O A 4CH8.

F5=:0 MB0, A:>@55 2A53>, ?@5C<5=LH5=0, B0: :0:, 2>-?5@2KE, >1@>:8 =081>;55 @>A;8 4> 30-E 3>4>2 {[36]} 8, 2>-2B>@KE, >1@>G=K5 BO3;0 =5A;8 25A>102>G=K5 ?>1>@K 8 ?>28==>AB8 45=56=K5 8 =0BC@0;L=K5; B0:, 4;O :0=C=0 A2>1>645=8O, 59G {[37]} >F5=8205B 8E 2 10 @C1;59 A 4CH8 4;O A:>2A:>9 3C15@=88.

"5< =5 <5=55, AB0=>281@>:5 :0: >F5=:5 4>E>40, ?> =0H8< A>>1@065=8O< - 2 22 0AA83=0F8>==KE @C1;O A @5287A:>9 4CH8.

 

4.4. >E>4=0O G0ABL 1N465B0 AB0@H53> =538=0.

063C A25GC ?@54 :064K< AC=4C:><,
2A5 8E >B>?@C, 8 AB0=C A0<
!
@54L =8E 3;O45BL =0 1;5ICI85 3@C4K.

 

B>3 AB0=5B >G5=L ;N1>?KB5=.

'8=>2=8GL5 60;>20=L5 =538=0->BF0: >:>;> 1 500 0AA. @C1;59 2 3>4;

@8 4>E>45 >B 8<5=8O 2 22 0AA @C1;O A 4CH8, 2A53> ;8HL 100 4CH =865 MB>3> ?><5I8: AG8B0;AO <5;:>?><5AB=K< - 40NB >BFC 235=8O ?>;B>@0 G8=>2=8GL8E 60;>20=LO.

-B> ?@8=F8?80;L=K9 4;O =0A 2K2>4. A;8 >B=>H5=8O AK=0 8 >BF0 =538=KE 8<5NB 2 >A=>20=88 >B=>H5=8O >BF0 8 AK=0 CH:8=KE, 85 ?>;>65=85 AB0@H53> =538=0 4>?CAB8<> A>?>AB028BL A >1AB>OB5;LAB20<8 !5@35O L2>28G0, 0 C B>3> 1K;> >:>;> 1 200 4CH (8AB5=Q2> 8 G0ABL >;48=0). {[38]} B0:>< ?@54?>;>65=88 1 200 4CH ?@8 4>E>45 2 22 @C1;O A 4CH8 =538=-AB0@H89 70@010BK20; >B 8<5=89 26 400 @C1;59 2 3>4, B> 5ABL 2 17 @07 1>;LH5 60;>20=8O =0 A;C615.

<5==> MB> 1K;> 8AB>G=8:>< 53> <=>3>G8A;5==KE 5653>4=KE 10;>2; MB0 ?C?>28=0 ?8B0;0 53> >15A?5G5==CN AB>;8G=CN 687=L 8 8<5==> >=0 >:070;0AL ?5@560B0 2 1810-11 3>40E. ">340 ?@8H;8 =5273>4K.

 

5. 878B 40<0 !<8B0.

?@><>B0;AO =0:>=5F.

 

1810-11 3>4K AB0;8 BO6:8<8 4;O >=538=A:>3> A5<59AB20. > <>8< @0AAC645=8O<, :>H5;Q: =538=0->BF0 ?@5B5@?5; (<>3 ?@5B5@?5BL) B>340 G5BK@5 :@>2>?CA:0=8O G5BK@5 C40@0 ?> D8=0=A>2>A=>20=8N ?@56=53> 1;03>?>;CG8O.

 

5.1. %;51=K5 F5=K.

>;510=8O F5= =0 425 E;51=K5 :C;LBC@K >2QA 8 @>6L 2 3C15@=A:>< 3>@>45 A:>25. {[39]}

8A.1

;O =0G0;0 19 25:0, @>6L 8 >2QA 1K;8 3;02=K<8 E;51=K<8 :C;LBC@0<8 >AA88.

A=>2=K<8 E;510<8 2 >AA88 XVIII =0G0;0 XX 2. O2;O;8AL @>6L, >25A, ?H5=8F0, OG<5=L 8 3@5G8E0, A@548 :>B>@KE @>6L 8 >25A 1K;8 3;02=K<8, B0: :0: 2K@0I820;8AL ?>2A5<5AB=> @>6L :0: >78<0O, >25A :0: O@>20O :C;LBC@0. 0 4>;N @68 8 >2A0 ?@8E>48;>AL 4> 70 % >1I53> A1>@0 E;51>2 2?;>BL 4> 1880 3., 8 ;8HL 2 :>=F5 XIX=0G0;5 XX 2. ?@>87>H;> A>:@0I5=85 8E ?>A52>2 8 A1>@>2 4> 52%. {[40]}

"5< A020O A>AB02;ONI0O 4>E>4>2 =538=0->BF0 2 1811 3>4C C?0;0 =0 36% (@>6L) 8;8 =0 33% (>2QA) ?> A@02=5=8N A 1810 3>4><.

 

5.2. Q=.

B>@K< 3;02=K< ?@>ABK< ?@>4C:B>< A:>2A:>9 3C15@=88 1K; ;Q=. A> ;L=>< 45;> >15@=C;>AL =5 ;CGH8< >1@07><.

!C4O ?> 40==K< {[41]} 8 {[42]}, A =0G0;0 4> A5@548=K 19 25:0 2 3C15@=88 A>E@0=O;0AL A;54CNI0O ?@>?>@F8O: ?@8<5@=> 1/3 ?@>872>48<>3> ;L=0 (270 000 ?C4>2) H;0 =0 <5AB=K5 ?@>872>4AB20, 0 >:>;> 2/3 (500 000 ?C4>2) CE>48;8 =0 M:A?>@B.

>A<>B@8<, GB> ?@>87>H;> A M:A?>@B>< @CAA:>3> ;L=0 2 8=B5@5A=>< =0< ?5@8>45.

">@3>2;O ;L=>< 2 A:>2A:>9 3C15@=88 1K;0 >@85=B8@>20=0 =0 10;B89A:85 ?>@BK, B> 5ABL =0 !0=:B-5B5@1C@3, 83C, 0@2C, 525;L, 8102C. 1802-181333. ;L28=0O 4>;O M:A?>@B0 H;0 G5@57 420 ?5@2KE :0=0;0. {[43]}

"01;8F0 2

>4

">@3>2;O @CAA:8E 0;B89A:8E ?>@B>2 2 1802-181333. - 4>;O ?>@B0 2 >1I5< M:A?>@B=>< >1>@>B5.

!-1

830

0@20

525;L

81020

1802

66,81%

26,08%

1,67%

0,76%

4,68%

1803

66,51%

26,07%

1,93%

0,65%

4,84%

1804

69,44%

28,63%

1,24%

0,68%

 

1805

64,36%

35,64%

 

 

 

1806

63,89%

34,55%

1,57%

 

 

1807

69,95%

28,13%

1,92%

 

 

1808

45,71%

45,71%

1,72%

1,72%

5,15%

1809

46,77%

48,61%

1,90%

0,33%

2,39%

1810

70,65%

29,35%

 

 

 

1811

80,25%

19,75%

 

 

 

1812

78,10%

20,24%

 

1,66%

 

1813

77,26%

18,77%

 

1,84%

2,13%

 

0B5<, F5=K =0 ;Q= ?5@2>9 :0B53>@88, B> 5ABL =0 M:A?>@B=K9 B>20@ 87<5=O;8AL <564C 1804 8 1813 3>4>< 2 !-1. 8 835 A;54CNI8< >1@07><: {[44]}

8A.2

45AL AB0=>28BLAO, B0: :0: >?@545;8BL, :C40 2 AB>;8FC 8;8 2 83C - 1K; >@85=B8@>20= M:A?>@B ;L=0 A ?>;59 =538=0-AB0@H53> =5B =8:0:>9 2>7<>6=>AB8. 84=>, GB> 2 1811 3>4C F5=K =0 ;Q= 2 0AA83=0F8>==KE @C1;OE, :0: <8=8 ?>A;5 1C@=>3> @>AB0 ?@54K4CI8E 42CE ;5B 8, :0: <0:A8 >B=>H5=8N : 1810 3>4C.

> MB> 5IQ =5 2AQ. AB5AB25==>, GB> A>AB028B5;8 AB0B8AB8G5A:8E B01;8F CG8BK20;8 F5=K =0 D0:B8G5A:8 ?@>40==K9 >1JQ< ;L=0, => A0< M:A?>@B=K9 >1JQ< 2 1810-11 3>40E @57:> A>:@0B8;AO. {[45]}

8A.3

 

1810 3>4C 2K2>7 C?0; =0 53%, 0 2 1811 3>4C =0 75% >B=>A8B5;L=> 1809 3>40.

>1I5<, 4;O =538=0->BF0 ?@>A<0B@8205BAO =01>@ AF5=0@852 >B ?@>AB> ?;>E>3> 4> :0B0AB@>D8G5A:>3>. "0:, ?CABL 2 1811 3>4C >= AC<5; ?@>40BL 25AL ;Q=, => >6840=8O 50%-60% ?@8@>AB0 2K@CG:8 (:0: MB> 1K;> A>2A5< =5402=>) =5 A1K;8AL; 0 682O 4>;30<8, B0:>2>5 :@CH5=85 =04564 25AL<0 1>;57=5==>, 5A;8 =5 @07>@8B5;L=>. CABL 2 1810 8;8 1811 3>4C >= =5 <>3 @50;87>20BL ;Q= 70 =52>AB@51>20==>ABLN B>20@0 =0 @K=:5 B>340 2/3 53> 4>E>4>2 >1@0I0;8AL 2 =8GB>. @>G85 AF5=0@88 ;560B <564C 42C<8 :@09=>ABO<8, 8 A@548 =8E =5B =8 >4=>3> CB5H8B5;L=>3>.

 

5.3. 5:A5;L=K9 :C@A.

> >B5F 235=8O =5 B>;L:> ?@>4020; ?@>4C:BK A5;LA:>3> E>7O9AB20, => ?@8>1@5B0; ?@>20@K, ?@54<5BK @>A:>H8 8 B>20@K :>;>=80;L=K5. 0: ?8A0; 0?>;5>=C !53N@ (1807 3>4): {[46]}

=3;8O 4>AB02;O5B 42>@O=0< AC:=> 4;O 8E >4564K, <515;L 4;O 8E 4><>2, ?>AC4C 4;O 8E AB>;0, 2A5, 2:;NG0O 4> 1C<038, ?5@L52 8 G5@=8;, 8, ?>4G8=OO A515 8E 2:CAK 8 ?@82KG:8, >=0 A2O70;0 >AA8N A A>1>9 B>=:8<8, => 15AG8A;5==K<8 8 ?@>G=K<8 C70<8

A;8 ?>A<>B@5BL =0 :0@B8=C @CAA:>3> 8 @B0 2 ?5@2>9 ?>;>28=5 19 25:0 {[47]}

"01;8F0 3

">20@K

% :> 2A57C

%;>?G0B>1C<06=K5 B:0=8

16,5

(5@ABO=K5 B:0=8

16,5

!0E0@

12,5

@0A:8 8 :@0A8;L=K5 25I5AB20

6,5

8=0 28=>3@04=K5 8 2>4:8

6,5

(5;:

6

'09

4

!>;L

4

 

B> =538=C->BFC, 2 53> ?>AB>O==>< ?>B@51;5=88 (A0E0@, 28=0 8 2>4:8, G09, A>;L ?>A;54=OO 22>78;0AL :0: @07 4;O A525@>-70?04=>3> @09>=0) B@51>20;8AL B>20@K, A>AB02;O2H85 27% 2A53> @>AA89A:>3> 22>70, 8 :C40 :0: 1>;LH5, 5A;8 >= G0AB> >1=>2;O; ?0=B0;>=K, D@0:, 68;5B. @8?><=8< 8 4CE8 2 3@0=Q=>< E@CAB0;5 8 AB@0A1C@3A:89 ?0HB5B 8 B.?. ">20@K MB8 8<5;8 :0:CN-B> F5=C 2 @CAA:8E 45=L30E, 8 <5@>9 MB>9 F5=K 2 =0G0;5 19 25:0 1K; 25:A5;L=K9 :C@A @C1;O =0 <5AB>=0E>645=85 ?@>402F0.

! =5:>B>@K< C?@>I5=85<, <>6=> A:070BL, GB> 25:A5;L=K9 :C@A @C1;O =0, A:065<, >=4>=, M:2820;5=B5= 4;O =0H53> 2@5<5=8 20;NB=>< 65 >=4>=5. = ?>:07K205B ?>:C?0B5;L=CN A?>A>1=>ABL @C1;O =0 8=>AB@0==KE @K=:0E.

"01;8F0 A@54=53>4>2KE 25:A5;L=KE :C@A>2 =0 3;02=K5 <5AB0 B>@3>2;8: {[48]}


8A.4

 


8A.5

 

K =5<54;5==> 2848<, GB> 2 1811 3>4C 25:A5;L=K9 :C@A AB>O; =0 A0<>9 =87:>9 ?>A;5 "8;L78BA:>9 2>9=K >B<5B:5 (=865, G5< 8 2> 2@59 2>9=K), B0: GB> 4>@>3>287=0 8 @B0 0 MB> 8 4CE8 2 E@CAB0;5, 8 ?0=B0;>=K A 68;5B>< 8 D@0:><, 8 A>;L, 8 A0E0@, 8 G09 8 28=0 A 2>4:0<8 - 1K;0 BO3G09H59 8<5==> 2 1811 3>4C.

 

5.4. >20O ?>40BL 8 =>2K9 =0;>3.

A>60;5=8N, =5?@8OB=>AB8 =538=0-AB0@H53> B5< =5 8AG5@?K20NBAO. 1810 3>4 ?@8=QA 5ABL =>2>9 ?>40B8 8 =>2>3> =0;>30.

! 1 O=20@O 1810 3>40 ?>4CH=0O ?>40BL AB0;0 2 @C1;O 2<5AB> ?@56=8E 1@ 44 :>?. {[49]} {[50]} #G8BK20O, GB> ?><5I8: 1K; A2>5>1@07=K< =0;>3>2K< 035=B>< A2>8E :@5?>AB=KE, MB> C25;8G5=85 ;53;> =0 B5 65 4>E>4K A 8<5=89 8, A>>B25BAB25==>, A>AB028;8 672 @C1;O A 1200 4CH.

0B5<, 2 1810 3>4C 5AL C?;0B8BL >A>1K9 =0;>3 (>= 459AB2>20; >48= B>;L:> 1810 3>4) 50 :>?55: A 4CH8, B> 5ABL 5IQ 600 @C1;59.

B<5GC, GB> =>2K5 =0;>3 8 ?>40BL 1K;8 22545=K 2 1810 3>4C, => 07=0G59AB2> ?@8=8<0;> =0;>38 4> :>=F0 B5:CI53> 3>40, 0 7=0O E0@0:B5@ =538=0->BF0 B@C4=> >6840BL >B =53> ?>A?5H=>AB8 A C?;0B>9 2 :07=C.

 

5.5. >?KB:0 ?>4AGQB0 C1KB:>2.

>?@>1C5< ?>4KB>68BL 154K AB0@H53> =538=0 2 8E G8A;5==>< 2K@065=88. 065BAO, =5?@8OB=>AB8 A3CAB8;8AL 2>:@C3 =53> 2 1811 3>4C.

CABL 2 1810 3>4C >= ?>;CG0; 1 500 @C1;59 0AA83=0F8O<8 >B A;C61K 8 26 400 @C1;59 >B 8<5=89. ">340:

(0) A;8 >= 68; >B ?@>4068 E;510, 53> 4>E>4 A 8<5=89 C?0; 2 1811 3>4C =0 33-36%, B> 5ABL ?@8<5@=> =0 9 100 @C1;59.

(01) 0B5<, 2 :>=F5 1810 3>40 >= C?;0B8; 1272 @C1;O =>2KE ?>40B8 8 =0;>30.

A53>, >:>;> 10 400 @C1;59.

(02) &5=0 8 @B=KE B>20@>2 ?>2A54=52=>3> C?>B@51;5=8O 745AL <>6=> B>;L:> A:070BL, GB> A@54=89 25:A5;L=K9 :C@A @C1;O =0 <->=4>=-0<1C@3-0@86 (A@54=55 0@8D<5B8G5A:>5) C?0; 2 1810 3>4C =0 30% ?@>B82 1809 8 2 1811 3>4C 4> 1/4 >B :C@A0 1810 3>40.

 

(1) A;8 >= 68; >B ?@>4068 ;L=0, C?04>: 4>E>40 A 8<5=89 <>6=> ?>;CG8BL :0: A@54=55 42CE >F5=>:.

>;>68<, ;Q= =538=0->BF0 8<5; A1KB =0 !0=:B-5B5@1C@3, 8 5AL @50;87>20BL 2AQ, =5A<>B@O =0 AB5A=5=85 M:A?>@B0. ">340 4>E>4 >AB0;AO ?@56=8< - =5 >?@0240;8AL B>;L:> >6840=8O 2KA>:8E 4>E>4>2, B> 5ABL ?>O28;8AL 70B@C4=5=8O A >B40G59 =0:>?;5==KE 4>;3>2.

0B5<, ?CABL ;Q= =538=0->BF0 8<5; A1KB =0 83C 8 AB5A=5=8O M:A?>@B0 >B@078;8AL =0 =Q< 2 ?>;=>9 <5@5. ">340:

- 2/3 2K@0I5==>3> 2 8<5=8OE ;L=0 H;0 =0 M:A?>@B; MB> 2/3 >B ?@8=OB>9 F8D@K >1I59 2K@CG:8 (26 400), B> 5ABL 17 600 @C1;59.

- A;8 ?045=85 >1JQ<0 M:A?>@B0 2 1811 3>4C (47% >B 1810 3>40) 2?>;=5 >B@078;>AL =0 >BF5 235=8O, >= A<>3 ?@>40BL 47% >B 2A53> M:A?>@B=>3> ;L=0, B> 5ABL =0 8 272 @C1;O 2 F5=0E ?@>H;>3> 3>40.

- > A0<8 F5=K =0 83C C?0;8 =0 19%. ">340 2K@CG:0 1811 3>40 ?0405B 4> 6 700 @C1;59.

B>3>, ?@8=8<0O, GB> 1/3 (2=CB@5==OO ?@>4060 2 3C15@=88) >AB0;0AL ?@56=59 (8 800 @C1;59), >1I89 4>E>4 >B 8<5=8O A>AB028B 8 800 + 6 700 = 15 500 @C1;59 0AA83=0F8O<8.

"5< A0F5=:8 40NB 26 400 8 15 500 @C1;59; A@54=OO >F5=:0 4>E>40 A 8<5=89 2 1811 3>4C 21 000 @C1;59. -B> ?>B5@8 2 5 400 @C1;59

(11) 0B5<, 2 :>=F5 1810 3>40 >= C?;0B8; 1272 @C1;O =>2KE ?>40B8 8 =0;>30.

A53>, >:>;> 6 700 @C1;59.

 

B0:, 4;O ?5@8>40 1810-11 3>4>2 <>6=> >F5=8BL ?>B5@8 =538=0-AB0@H53> 2 7 000 10 000 @C1;59 0AA83=0F8O<8, B> 5ABL 2 25% - 35% >B 2A53> 4>E>40, ?;NA C4>@>60=85 687=8 70 AGQB @>AB0 F5= =0 22>7820@K, :>B>@>5 A;>6=> 2K@078BL :0:>9-B> F8D@>9.

 

6. C<06=0O ?5=0.

>;030N, 2=8<0B5;L=K9 G8B0B5;L CA?5; >1@0B8BL 2=8<0=85 =0 =5:>B>@CN AB@0==>ABL ?@54K4CI8E @0AAC645=89 O 2Q; 2A5 @0AGQBK 2 @C1;OE 0AA83=0F8>==KE, E>BO ;N1>9 A5@LQ7=K9 >17>@ D8=0=A>2>9 8AB>@88 B5E ;5B >?Q@B =0 @C1;8 A5@51@O=K5 20;NBC B>20@=CN, <5B0;;8G5A:CN, :C40 :0: 1>;55 CAB>9G82CN, =565;8 1C<06=K5 0AA83=0F88.

07C<55BAO, A45;0=> MB> ?@54=0<5@5==>.

A;8 2>@8< > 3>AC40@AB25==KE D8=0=A0E, ?@8E>48BAO 8A?>;L7>20BL :0:CN-B> <0;>-<0;LA:8 AB018;L=CN H:0;C F5==>AB59 MB> <>65B 1KBL A5@51@O=K9 @C1;L, ?@>AB> 3@0<;>B0 8 A5@51@0, :8;>3@0<< E;510 8 B.?. > 4;O G0AB=>3> ;8F0 2 B> 2@5=OB85 @C1;L 1K;> @C1;L 0AA83=0F8>==K9, 20;NB0 ?>2A54=52=>3> C?>B@51;5=8O. !5@51@O=K5 @C1;8 B>340 A?@OB0;8AL, AB0;8 A@54AB2>< >1@07>20=8O A>:@>28I, >4=8< ;8HL 8450;L=K< MB0;>=>< <5@K AB>8<>AB8 2 B>< G8A;5 8 AB>8<>AB8 0AA83=0F89. ?>2A54=52=>5 >1@0I5=85 1K;> 1C<06=K<.

48=0:>2>5 89 <>=5BK, <54=>9 <>=5BK 8 1C<06=>9 =>BK A18205B A B>;:C, ?@>B82>@5G8B B>G5284=> A 1769 3>40 ?> A5@548=C 20-E 3>4>2 (A <0;K< ?5@5@K2>< 2> 2@5<5=0 02;0 I) 2 AB@0=5 E>48;8 425 @07=K5 20;NBK >4=0 A5@51@>, 2B>@0O - 1C<030 A <54=K< >E2>ABL5<. <5==> 425 @07=K5 20;NBK, ?>4 >4=8< 8<5=5<.

C:070==K9 ?5@8>4, 20;NB0 0AA83=0F8>==K9 @C1;L 8<5;0 A2>5>1@07=K5 A2>9AB20.

>-?5@2KE, >=0 1K;0 <>=>?>;859, @530;859, 3>AC40@AB20.

>-2B>@KE, 3>AC40@AB2> ?@8=8<0;> 5Q 2 C?;0BC ?>40B59, A1>@>2, ?>H;8= ?> =><8=0;C, B> 5ABL :0: @C1;L. > 0?@5;O 1812 3>40, C?;0B0 2 1N465B @C1;O A5@51@O=>3> 8 @C1;O 0AA83=0F8>==>3> 7=0G8;0 2K?;0BC >48=0:>2>9 AC<BO 2> 2=51N465B=>9 >1;0AB8, 2 A45;:0E G0AB=KE ;8F, 0AA83=0F8>==K9 @C1;L E>48; A>25@H5==> 8=0G5 (A<. 3@0D8:):

8A. 6. C@A 0AA83=0F8>==>3> @C1;O, 2 A5@51@O=KE :>?59:0E, !-1. 8@60. {[51]}

 

@54?>;>68<, GB> 2 1810 3>4C O 8<5N =0 @C:0E 5-@C1;Q2CN 0AA83=0F8N; B>340, 1N465B >48=0:>2> ?@8<5B C <5=O 8 5Q, 8 ?OBL @C1;59 A5@51@>< :0: ?OBL @C1;59; => :C?5F 2>7L20@ ;81> ?OBL @C1;59 A5@51@><, ;81> 20 @C1;59 0AA83=0F8O<8.

-B@5BL8E, 4> 25A=K 1812 3>40 3>AC40@AB2> =8:0: =5 B@51>20;> >1O70B5;L=>3> ?@8Q<0 0AA83=0F89 2 C?;0BC 2 A45;:0E <564C G0AB=K<8 ;8F0<8. 4=> G0AB=>5 ;8F> <>3;> ?>B@51>20BL >B 4@C3>3> A5@51@>, >B:0702H8AL 1@0BL 0AA83=0F88 157> 2AO:8E 4;O A51O ?>A;54AB289.

-G5B2Q@BKE, 4> 1824 3>40 3>AC40@AB2> =8:0: =5 2<5H820;>AL 2 G0AB=K9, 18@652>9 :C@A 0AA83=0F8>==>3> @C1;O. = :>;510;AO A>25@H5==> A2>1>4=>.

-?OBKE, 3>AC40@AB2> 4> 1824 3>40 (70 8A:;NG5=85< :@0B:>3> ?5@8>40 2> 2@5 I) =5 <5=O;> 0AA83=0F88 =0 A5@51@> =8 ?> =><8=0;C, =8 :0:-B> 8=0G5. AA83=0F8N =5;L7O 1K;> >1<5=OBL =0 A5@51@> 2 3>AC40@AB25==KE CG@5645=8OE. Q <>6=> 1K;> ;8HL :C?8BL 70 A5@51@> ;81> :C?8BL 70 =5Q A5@51@> G0AB=K< >1@07><.

-H5ABKE, 3>AC40@AB2> =8:>340 =5 >B:07K20;>AL @07<5=820BL 0AA83=0F88 =0 <54=CN <>=5BC B5< A0<54=K5 45=L38 ?@8>1@5;8 0AA83=0F8>==K9 :C@A 8 AB0;8 >E2>ABL5<, 18;;>=><, >4=>9 ;8HL @07<5==>9 <>=5B>9.

-A54LAC40@AB2> ?@82K:;> ?>:@K20BL 45D8F8BK 1N465B0 M<8AA859 0AA83=0F89, @0A:@CG820O, B5< A0<0E>28: 1C<06=>9 8=D;OF88. BAN40 8 ?045=85 1C<06=>3> :C@A0.

8A.7. 5D8F8BK 3>AC40@AB25==>3> 1N465B0, 2 0AA. @C1;OE, <564C 1801 8 1822 33. {[52]} (57 ?>70820=89: 1) 87 3>AC40@AB25==KE :@548B=KE CAB0=>2;5=89; 2) ?>70820=89 87 AA83=0F8>==>3> 10=:0; 3) ?>70820=89 87 ?@8=04;560I8E @07=K< 254>2; 4) 157 AC1A8489 >B 0=3;89A:>3> ?@028B5;LAB20; 5) 157 ?>65@B2>20=89 G0AB=KE ;8F =0 2>5==K5 =04>1=>AB8.)

8A. 8. -<8AA8O 0AA83=0F89 (=0@8F0B5;L=0O AB>8<>ABL) <564C 1800 8 1822 33. {[53]}

8A. 9 AA83=0F89 2 >1@0I5=88, =0@8F0B5;L=0O AB>8<>ABL. {[54]}

 

5D8F8BK 1N465B0 1K;8 E@>=8G5A:8<8; >1JQ< 0AA83=0F89 2 >1>@>B5 ?CE, A0<8 65 >=8 E8@5;8.

-2>AL 70:>=C @5H5<0 EC4K5 45=L38 2KB5A=ONB 87 >1>@>B0 ;CGH85. "0: 8 A;CG8;>AL 0AA83=0F88 2KB5A=8;8 87 >1>@>B0 A5@51@> -

&E>48B >=> B>;L:> 2 AB>;8F0E, 2 3>@>40E ?>3@0=8G=KE, 2 ?@8<>@A:8E, 2=CB@8 >AA88 =5 284OB 8 =5 A?@0H820NB 53>, 2 ?@>B82=>ABL A:070==> 548=AB25==0O @>AA89A:0O 10=:>20O <>=5B0 5ABL @C1;L A5@51@O=K9. 5B, A5@51@> C =0A B>20@, 0 =5 45=L38? {[55]}

!5@51@> CH;> 87 >1>@>B0 2 4@C3CN 8?>AB0AL 45=53 2 A?>A>1 =0:>?;5=8O A>:@>28I0.

8A. 10. >;8G5AB2> @07=KE @>4>2 45=53 2 >1@0I5=88 ?> >AA89A:>9 8 8<>ABL. {[56]}

<5AB5 A B5<, 4> 0?@5;O 1812 3>40 0AA83=0F88 =5 8<5;8 E>645=8O 2 H5AB8 ?>3@0=8G=KE 70?04=KE 8 B@QE >AB759A:8E 3C15@=8OE. "0< ?>;L7>20;8AL A5@51@><, 7>;>B>< 8 <54LN.

452OBKE, 0AA83=0F88 =5 ?040;8 4> =C;O ?> 42C< ?@8G8=0<: 0) ?>40B=>5 >15A?5G5=85 (=0H5 2>-2B>@KE) ?>=OB=>, GB> ;8AB>: 1C<038 A =04?8ALN AB>;L:>-B> @C1;59, ?@8=8<059 8<5==> 70 AB>;L:>-B> @C1;59 =5 <>65B 2>2A5 ;8H8BLAO <5=>2>9 F5==>AB8; 1) A>>1@065=85 >1I5AB25==>9 ?>;L7K 4@C38E 45=56=KE 7=0:>2 =><8=0;0<8 4> 100 (200 A 1819 3>40) @C1;59 =0 @K=:5 =5 1K;>, 8 >1@0I5=85 =5 <>3;> >1>9B8AL >4=8<8 A5@51@O=K<8 @C1;O<8, B5< 1>;55 GB> G5:0=:0 8E 1K;0 4>;38< 8 70B@C4=8B5;L=K< 45;><. > =86=89 =><8=0; 0AA83=0F8>==>3> @C1;O 1K; 5 @C1;59, B> 5ABL M:2820;5=B 1@ 25 :>?. A5@51@>< 4;O 10-E 3>4>2 B5< A0AB@0=8;8AL 8 2 >1;0ABL :@C?=KE AC<< (A>B=8 @C1;59) 8 2 >1;0ABL @C1;Q2KE ?;0B5659, 2KB5A=82 >BBC40 A5@51@O=CN <>=5BC.

-45AOBKE, >AA8O ?>1548;0 0?>;5>=0, ?>;L7COAL AB@0==>9 MB>9 20;NB>9 0AA83=0F8O<8. 5AB8 2>9=C =0 A5@51@O=>< >1@0I5=88 1K;> 1K =52>7<>6=>. >5==0O M:>=><8:0 682QB 1C<06=K<8 45=L30<8 2>9=0 >1@07C5B A2>9, >A>15==K9 @K=>: B>20@>2 8 CA;C3, =5=C6=KE 8;8 <0;> 2>AB@51>20==KE 2 <8@=>5 2@59=0 2 87>18;88 B@51C5B 8 B>BG0A C=8GB>605B ?>@>E 8 A28=5F, B@0=A?>@B 8 DC@06, ;N459 8 682>B=KE. @B5@88 45=56=>3> >1@0I5=8O 2>5==>9 M:>=><8:8 =04C20NBAO 1C<06=>9 20;NB>9, => ?>A;5 =0ABC?;5=8O <8@0, :>340 @K=>: 2>5==KE <0B5@80;>2 AE;>?K205BAO, 45=L38 MB8 AB0=>2OBAO 871KB>G=K<8, ?045=85 :C@A0 =587156=> 8 >:07K205BAO >G5=L A8;L=K<, 8=>340 D0B0;L=K<. '8B0B5;L <>65B ?>A<>B@5BL =0 :C@A>2>< 3@0D8:5 A8BC0F8N 1814-1533.

 

B0:, =538=-AB0@H89 ?>;CG0; 0AA83=0F88, B@0B8; 0AA83=0F88, 68; =0 0AA83=0F88, AG8B0; =0 0AA83=0F88. K A<>B@8< =0 53> E;51=K5 4>E>4K 2 0AA83=0F8OE 8 2848< :0B0AB@>D8G5A:89 F5=>2>9 ?@>20; 2 1811 3>4C; >4=0:>, 2 A5@51@O=>9 20;NB5 (B>B 65 3@0D8:) >= =0G0; @07>@OBLAO 5IQ 2 1809- >= =5 7=0; (8;8 =5 4C<0;) >1 MB><. %;51=K5 F5=K 2 A5@51@O=>9 20;NB5 ?040;8, => 0AA83=0F8>==K9 @C1;L >15AF5=820;AO :C40 :0: 1>;LH8< B5 <; A>>B25BAB25==>, F5=K =0 E;51 2 =Q< (0AA83=0F8>==>< @C1;5) @>A;8 2?;>BL 4> 1810 3>40 B>340 1C<06=K9 @C1;L ?5@5AB0; ?040BL >B=>A8B5;L=> @C1;O A5@51@O=>3>, ?5=0 1C<06=>9 8=D;OF88 AE;K=C;0, 8 >B5F 235=8O C2845; 8AB8==CN :0@B8=C 45;.

>G51 MB>< <>6=> 3>2>@8BL A C25@5==>ABLN? >B> >1 MB>< 3>2>@OB 25AL<0 :> 2@5<5==8:8 =538=0->BF0.

/ C65 F8B8@>20; 835;O: ;O ?><5I8:>2, 2;045;LF52 4><>2 8 :C?5G5AB20 B0:>5 ?>=865=85 :C@A0 =5 8<5;> =8:0:8E 2@54=KE ?>A;54AB289, 81> F5=K =0 2A5 ?@>4C:BK ?> B>9 65 <5@5 AB0;8 2>72KH0BLAO; 70B5<, 0@0<78= 2 B>9 65 0?8A:5: {[57]}

;045;5F, 8<5NI89 45@52=8 =0 ?0H=5, 8;8 D01@8:8, =5 B5@?8B =C64K >B 4>@>3>287=K, :C?FK B0:65. >A?>48= >1@>G=KE :@5ABLO= B5@?8B 1>;55, 8;8 <5=55; 45=56=K5 :0?8B0;8ABK 8 ;N48, 682CI85 60;>20=L5<, 1>;55 2A5E B5@ONB.

 

2>B !?5@0=A:89 87 ;0=0 D8=0=A>2: {[58]}

#<=>65=85 0AA83=0F89 8 2>72KH5=85 F5= =5 <>3;8 8<5BL 206=>3> 459AB28O =0 :>@5==K5 ?>B@51=>AB8. ;0AA 75<;545;LF52, ?><5I8:>2 2 45@52=OE 682CI8E, :C?F>2 2=CB@5==NN B>@3>2;N >B?@02;ONI8E 8 2A5E =05<=KE @01>B=8:>2 =5 B>;L:> =8G53> =5 ?>B5@?5;, => 8 <>3 A45;0BL 206=K5 >B A53> ?@8>1@5B5=8O.

0:>=5F, 0=8D5AB 2 D52@0;O 1810 3>40 <5@0E : C<5=LH5=8N 3>AC40@AB25==KE 4>;3>2; > ?@5:@0I5=88 2K?CA:0 2 >1>@>B =>2KE AC<< 0AA83=0F8O<8 8 > 2>72KH5=88 =5:>B>@KE ?>40B59 8 ?>H;8= {[59]}:

&2>72KH5=85< F5=, @0AH8@5=85< ?@>AB8, =0@>G8BK< C<=>65=85< =0@>40, ?@81KB:8 A5;LA:>3> E>7O9AB20 242>5 8 2B@>5 C25;8G8;8AL&.

 

K 2848<, :0: 0AA83=0F8>==0O ?5=0 70AB8B 3;070 C<=59H8< ;N4O< B>3> 2@5<5=8 G53> 65 640BL >B =538=0-AB0@H53>? > 1811 3>40 4>E>4 >B 8<5=89 @>A 2 1C<06=><, =><8=0;L=>< 8AG8A;5=88 8 @>A 1C@=>; B0:, =0?@8<5@:

- 2 1809 3>4C 70 ?C4 @68 4020;8 67 7>;>BKE :>?55:, 0 2 1810 42 :>?59:8, B> 5ABL =0 25 :>?55: <5=LH5, >4=0:> 4;O 1809 3>40 67 7>;>BKE :>?55: AB>8;8 154@ 73:>? 0AA83=0F8O<8, 0 42 7>;>BKE :>?59:8 ?> :C@AC 1810 3>40 AB>8;8 C65 165@ 35:>? 0AA83=0F8O<8, B> 5ABL ?C4 @68 2K@>A 2 20;NB5 1C<06=>9 C?02, =0 45;5, 2 20;NB5 B>20@=>9. :>340 1C<06=0O 20;NB0 24@C3 ?5@5AB0;0 ?040BL, >1AB>OB5;LAB20 =538=0-AB0@H53> >1=068;8AL A0I04=K< >1@07><. =D;OF8>==K9 <8@06 ?@>?0;; 4CBK5 =><8=0;K 45=56=KE ?>ABC?;5=89 >B 8<5=89 AJQ68;8AL.

 

7. ;>:>7=5==K9 3>AC40@AB25==K9 A5:@5B0@L.

 

?@>H;>5 2>A:@5A5=L5 >1540; O C !?5@0=A:>3> ... !?5@0=A:89 C A51O >G5=L ;N1575=. / 3>2>@8; 5 ?@5:@0A=>< =0G0;5 F0@AB2>20=8O ;5:A0=4@0: K 8 @0:G552, 2K AB>8B5 2 425@OE ?@>B82>?>;>6=KE MB>3> F0@AB2>20=8O, :0: 5=88 ;0 8 ;030. = >B25G0; :> 25B>20; <=5 ?8A0BL 8AB>@8N <>53> 2@5<5=8.

.CH:8=.

7.1. @5A5G5=85 1C<06=>3> ?>B>:0.

B0:, 2 1810 3>4C 1C<06=K9 @C1;L ?5@5AB0; ?040BL. >;55 B>3>, <, GB> 2 1811 3>4C >= =5A:>;L:> 2K@>A; 70B5<, 1N465B 1811 3>40 >:070;AO C4828B5;L=K< >1@07>< A254Q= A ?@>D8F8B><; 70B5<, 2 1811 3>4C ?>GB8 ?@5:@0B8;0AL M<8AA8O 0AA83=0F89. AB5AB25==>, GB> 2A5 MB8 O2;5=8O 2708<>A2O70=K 15745D8F8B=>B@51>20;0AL 1C<06=0O M<8AA8O, 0 45=56=K9 @K=>:, =5 ?>;CG82 4>?>;=8B5;L=>9 ?>@F88 0AA83=0F89, AB018;878@>20;AO. 1812 3>4C 2>7>1=>28;8AL 1N465B=K5 45D8F8BK 8, A>>B25BAB25==>, M<8AA8O, => =0G0;8 459AB2>20BL 8=K5 <5E0=87-?5@2KE, E>645=85 0AA83=0F89 @0A?@>AB@0=8;8 =0 6 ?>3@0=8G=KE 8 B@8 >AB759A:85 3C15@=88; 2>-2B>@KE, 2A;54 70 B5<, AB@0=0 2ABC?8;0 2 ?>;>AC 2>5==>9 M:>=><8:8. > =0A 8=B5@5AC5B 1810-11 3>4.

!>1AB25==>, 745AL 8 ?>O2;O5BAO 40< !<8B 25@=55, D8=0=A>20O @5D>@<0 !?5@0=A:>3> >A2OIQ==0O 8<5=5< 25;8:>3> H>B;0=4F0.

;0= @5D>@ 5ABL 7=0<5=8BK9 ;0= D8=0=A>2 !?5@0=A:>3> 4>:C<5=B >1JQ<8ABK9, 2 =Q< >:>;> 70 AB@0=8F (!1>@=8: @A:>3> @CAA:>3> 8AB>@8G5A:>3> >1I5AB20, B.45, !-1, 1885 3>4). >;55 B@5B8 4>:C<5=B0, 26 AB@0=8F, >B40=> "5>@88 <>=5B=>9 8 :@548B=>9 A8AB5;=5 A<8BB8ABA:>9 (5AB5AB25==>, CG8BK20O ?@>8AE>645=85 4>:C<5=B0 87 @01>BK 0;C3LO=A:>3> :>B>@CN !?5@0=A:89 ?5@5;>68; =0 @CAA:89, => 2 4@C3>9 D>@<5 8 A> <=>38<8 ?5@5<5=0<8 8 4>?>;=5=8O<8 {[60]}). -B>, B0: A:070BL, B5>@5B8G5A:0O G0ABL ?;0=0. @0:B8G5A:0O 65 G0ABL 45;8BAO =0 >?5@0B82=K5 (=0 1810 3>4) <5@K 8 =0 <5@K 40;L=59H85 (?>A;5 1810 3>40). !;CG8;>AL B0:, GB> 8A?>;=5=85 ?;0=0 >3@0=8G8;>AL >4=8<8 >?5@0B82=K<8 <5@0<8, 8<5==>: !?5@0=A:89 (0) C@570; @0AE>4K 1N465B0; (1) C<=>68; 4>E>4K =>2K<8 =0;>30<8, ?>40BO<8 8 A1>@0<8; (2) =0;048; =5:>B>@K9 :>=B@>;L =04 0AA83=>2:>9 8 @0AE>4>20=85< :07Q==KE A@54AB2; (3) ACI5AB25==> >3@0=8G8; =>2K5 2K?CA:8 0AA83=0F89. @>G85 ?@>45:;0@8@>20==K5 (8 >BG0AB8 =0G0BK5) <5@>?@8OB8O 2K5<:0 0AA83=0F89 A @K=:0 >?5@0F859 A@>G=>3> 709<0 ?>4 >15A?5G5=85 3>A8A=>20=85 <>=5B=>9 A8AB5;L:> =0 A5@51@5 - ;81> 2>>1I5 =5 =0G0;8AL, ;81> =5 ?@8=5A;8 @57C;LB0B0.

"0:, 2 3;070E ?C1;8:8 25AL A<8BB87< A2Q;AO : 10=0;L=>3>2; 2A5 B5>@5B8G5A:85 ?@5;5AB8 8 ?@5AB8 ;0=0 D8=0=A>2 >AB0;8AL B>340 2 :5;59=>9 B09=5 >B >1I5AB20, 40 8 ?> 1>;LH59 G0AB8 =5 A@01>B0;8 =0 ?@0:B8:5. C@A AB018;878@>20;AO @07C<55BAO, : >1I5AB25==>9 ?>;L75 - =>, :0: B>@KE 8;;N789.

B>< ?;0= ?>40;8 >1I5AB2C 25AL<0 =5C40G=>. 5D>@<0 =0G0;0AL 0=8D5AB>< >B 2 D52@0;O 1810 3>40 {[61]} A ?@>AB@0==K< 8AB>@8G5A:8< 22545=85< >1 >A=>20E >1I5AB25==>3> :@548B0 8 10=:>2A:>3> 45;0; > @>AB5 3>AC40@AB25==>3> 4>;30 87-70 2>5==KE @0AE>4>2 8 A>>B25BAB2CNI5< ?045=88 0AA83=0F89; > =5C<5AB=>9 C<5@5==>AB8 459AB2CNI8E ?>40B59 8 =0;>3>2 8 ?@5B5@?520NI59 B5< 2@5<5=5< :07=5. 0B5< A;54>20;8 15 ?C=:B>2, ?5@2K9 87 :>B>@KE 72CG0; 1>;55 G5< AB@0==>:

A5 >AC40@AB25==K5 0=:>2K5 0AA83=0F88, =K=5 >1@0I0NI85AO, ?@87=0NBAO B0:, :0: 8 2A5340 >=8 1K;8 ?@87=0205< >AC40@AB25==K< 4>;3><, >15A?5G5==K< =0 2A5E 1>30BAB20E

065BAO, !?5@0=A:89 ?5@5?CB0; 04@5A0B0: 4;O 3>AC40@AB25==>3> :07=0G59AB20, 1C<06=K5 45=L38, 2K?CI5==K5 A =07=0G5=85< ?>:@KBL 4K@C 2 1N465B5, 2 A0<>< 45;5, 2 :0:>9-B> AB5?5=8 3>AC40@AB25==K9 4>;3, => 4;O G0AB=KE ;N459, <564C :>B>@K<8 E>4OB 0AA83=0F88, >=8 2A53> ;8HL 45=L38 =5 1>;55 8 =5 <5=55.

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

10 MB8 0:B0, <0=8D5AB 8 2K?CI5==0O, 2<5AB5 A =8<, >?@0240B5;L=0O, B0: A:070BL, 70?8A:0, =5 <>3;8 =5 ?@>8725AB8 A8;L=>3> 42865=8O 2 C<0E. ">@65AB25==>5 8 2A5=0@>4=>5 A>7=0=85, A >4=>9 AB>@>=K, GB> D8=0=AK =0H8 ?@5645 1K;8 EC4> C?@02;O5; A 4@C3>9 GB> >B B0:>3> C?@02;5=8O :07=0 2>2;5:;0AL 2 7=0G8B5;L=K5 2=CB@5==85 4>;38 8 =0 ?>:@KB85 @0AE>4>2 =54>AB0B>G=> >1K:=>25==KE A@54AB2 3>AC40@AB20, ?>4>1=>5 A>7=0=85 1K;>, 4;O <0AAK, B0:>N 65 =>287=>N, :0: 8 >1JO2;5=85 24@C3 0AA83=0F89 3>AC40@AB25==K< 4>;3><, :0: >15I0=85 =8:>340 8E 2?@54L =5 ?@8C<=>60BL, :0:, =0:>=5F, ?@8720=85 =0 ?@8=8<05< <5@K >4>1@5=8O ;N459 1;03> > 5IQ 3>@074> 1>;55 G5< MB8<8 >B2;5GQ==K<8 B5>@8O<8, =0@>4 1K; 272>;=>20= <0B5@80;L=K< 8E @57C;LB0B><, B.5. A8;L=K< 2>72KH5=85< 2A5E =0;>3>2, 8 ?@8B>< 2 B0:CN M?>EC, :>340, >B 1;>:04K 2A5E ?@8AB0=59, 2K2>7 =0H8E ?@>872545=89 8 2>>1I5 2AO B>@3>2;O ?>GB8 A>25@H5==> >AB0=>28;8AL. 5>B@078<0O A8;0 A>1KB89 8 3>AC40@AB25==KE =C64, ?@8254H0O ?@028B5;LAB2> : =5>1E>48<>AB8 >3;0A8BL A>AB>O=85 45; 8 ?@54?@8=OBL AB>;L @5H8B5;L=CN <5@C, >AB0;0AL, 4;O 1>;LH8=AB20 ?C1;8:8, :0: 8 G0AB> 1K205B, =5?>=OB=>N; 2845;8 ;8HL 2@5<5==K5 =5C4>1AB20 8 BO65;K5 ?>65@B2>20=8O, ?@82O7K20;8AL, <8<>E>4><, : =>2K<, =51K20;K< 2K@065=8O<, 8 =0 B0:8E ?@82O7:0E AB@>8;8 A0;:>20=8O, :>B>@K5 2@030<8 !?5@0=A:>3> 2KAB02;O;8AL 2 2845 >1I53> <=5=8O 8 3>AC40@AB25==>9 B@52>38& {[62]}

 

!;54CNI85 <5AOFK 1810 3>40 C2845;8 G5@54C <0=8D5AB>2 AB@0==>3>, =51K20;>3> A>45@60=8O. 27 <0O 1810 3>40 >1JO28;8 2=CB@5==89 70Q< =0 100 <8;;8>=>2 0AA83=0F8O<8 A@>G=K9, A A5@51@O=K< ?>30H5=85< 2 1817 3>4C, A 2K?;0B>9 6% 3>4>2KE 8 15AA@>G=K9, 4,5-?@>F5=B=K9. >;CG5==K5 >B =0A5;5=8O 0AA83=0F88 1K;> ?>25;5=> ?@540BL ?C1;8G=>665=8N. 15A?5G5=85< 709<0 >1JO2;O;0AL ?@>4060 3>AC40@AB25==KE 8@3>2. {[63]} 0=8D5AB >B 20 8N=O 1810 3>40 {[64]} 2>73;0A8;, GB> 3;02=0O <>=5B0 5ABL A5@51@O=K9 @C1;L, 8 GB> A 1811 3>40 2A5 70:>==K5 0:BK, :@5?>AB8, 25:A5;O, CA;>28O 8 ?@>G. ?8A0BL =04> 1C45B =5 8=0G5 :0: =0 =53>, 0 A;54CNI89 <0=8D5AB (29 023CAB0 1810 3>40 {[65]}) ?>4@>1=> @0A?8A0; =><8=0;K 8 2=CB@5==85 4>AB>8=AB20 =>2>9 @07<5==>9 A5@51@O=>9 8 <54=>9 <>=5BK.

0=8D5ABK MB8 =5 2>7K<5;8 459AB28O. 0Q< ?@>20;8;AO; ;><0BL <>=5B=CN A8AB54ABC?0NI59 2>9=K =5 @5H8;8AL. > A<0E ?@>87>H;>. @028B5;LAB2> A;>2=> 1K 2KH;> =0 18B2C A 0AA83=0F8O<8 A>1AB25==>9, 3>AC40@AB25==>9 20;NB>9 1C<06=K5 =>BK, E>4>2K5 45=L38, AB0;8 24@C3 G5<-B> >?0A=K<, A:25@=K<, 8E =04> 1K;> 2K:C?0BL 8 A6830BL ?C1;8G=>, 65@B2CO @048 MB>3> 8 3>AC40@AB25==K<8 81>@>B0 A5@51@O=K9 @C1;L >:07K20;AO 3;02=>9 8 548=AB25==>9 3>AC40@AB25==>9 20;NB>9!

0: 3>AC40@AB2> 1>30B55B, G5< 6825B, 8 ?>G55 =C6=> 7>;>B0 52>@8B CH:8=, 25@=55, 235=89; A;8 1K 3>AC40@L 40; =0< :;59<5==K5 I5?:8 8 25;5; E>48BL 8< 2<5AB> @C1;59, =0H54H8 A?>A>1 ?@54>E@0=OBL =0A >B D0;LH82KE <>=5B 45@52O==KE, B> 2>@8B 0@0<78=; 0 !?5@0=A:89, =0?@>B82, >17K205B =>BK A;04:8< O4>< 8 BI8BAO 2K:C?0BL 8E 8 A6830BL ?C1;8G=>!

=B5@5A=>, GB> A B>G:8 7@5=8O A>2@5<5==KE 7=0=89 > 45=56=>< >1>@>B5 0@0<78= 8 =538= 157CA;>2=> ?@02K, 0 !?5@0=A:89 - =5B. >@5=L 7;0 1K; =5 2 A0<8E 0AA83=0F8OE 8 =5 2 =87:>< 8E :C@A5, => 2 ?>AB>O==>< 87<5=5=88 MB>3> :C@A0, B> 5ABL, 2 A2>N >G5@54L, 2 M<8AA88 1C<06=KE 45=53 ?> ?@8G8=5 E@>=8G5A:8 45D8F8B=>3> 3>AC40@AB25==>3> 1N465B0. AA83=0F88 C<5=LH0NBAO 2 F5=5 >B A2>53> @07<=>65=8O; 7>;>B> 8 A5@51@> B0:65 - 3>2>@8B @5B@>3@04 0@0<78= 8 >= :C40 1>;55 A<8BB8AB =>20B>@0 !?5@0=A:>3>!

 

!>2@5<5==K5 !?5@0=A:>74=59H85 M:>=><8ABK 548=>3;0A=> AG8B0NB ;0= 8A:;NG8B5;L=> @07C<=K< 8 C40G=K< 4>:C<5=B><, =>, 2>-?5@2KE, >=8 7=0;8 ?;0= 2 53> ?>;=>B5 G53> =5 7=0;0, 8 7=0BL =5 <>3;0 B>340H=OO ?C1;8:0; 2>-2B>@KE, >=8 AC4OB 53> :0: F5;L=CN A>2>:C?=>ABL 459AB289 0 ?C1;8:0 C2845;0 2 459AB288 >G5=L =5<=>3>5 87 70?;0=8@>20==>3>. !;02=K 1C1=K 70 3>@0<8. 40< !<8B O28;AO 2 >AA8N =5 A>2A5< C40G=K< >1@07><.

-B>B ?0@25=N, 2KA:>G:0, 45;05B GB>-B> =5AC@07=>5 A 45=L30<8, 8 @O52 1K; >1I89 3;0A 8 0@0<78= AB0; 53> 2K@078B5;5<.

 

7.2 25@L, >B?5@B0O 2 ?CAB>BC.

> GB> ;Q=? CABL D0:B C45H52;5=8O E;510 2K=K@=C; 87-?>4 >?02H59 0AA83=0F8>==>9 ?5=K; A> ;L=>< B> 5ABL, A F5=0<8 =0 =53> 2KH;0 8=0O 8AB>@8O, A2O70==0O A 8=K< 45O=85< !?5@0=A:>3> ?@>@K2>< 2 1811 3>4C :>=B8=5=B0;L=>9 1;>:04K.

1 O=20@O 1811 3>40 ?>O28;AO =>2K9 B0<>65==K9 B0@8D 8;8 >;>65=85 > =59B@0;L=>9 B>@3>2;5 =0 1811 3>4 2 ?>@B0E 5;>3>, 0;B89A:>3>, '5@=>3> 8 7>2A:>3> <>@59 8 ?> 2A59 70?04=>9 ACE>?CB=>9 3@0=8F5. {[66]} 2B>@AB2> B0@8D0 ?@8=04;568B !?5@0=A:>= ?@5A;54>20; A;54CNI85 F5;8:

;O ?@82>7=KE B>20@>2: 1) ?@54<5BK =5>1E>481I5?>;57=K5 >AB028BL, ?> ?@56=5, 157 ?>H;8=K; 2) AK@K5 B>20@K, =C6=K5 :0: <0B5@80; 4;O =0H8E ?@>1;>68BL ?>H;8=>N >B 1-3> 4> 5-B8, 0 4@C385, <5=55 >1I5?>B@51=K5, >B 5-B8 4> 10-B8 ?@>F5=B>2 8E F5=K; 3) B>20@K, ?@8=04;560I85 : @>A:>H8, => >B ?@82KG:8 : =8< A45;02H85AO =5>1E>48B 10-B8 4> 50-B8 ?@>F5=B>2; 4) <0=CD0:BC@=K5 B>20@K 2>>1I5>B 10-B8 4> 50-B8. {[67]}

 

B0@8D MB8E F5;59 4>AB83.

> 2>B C:07 ?>O28;AO. >;5=:C@ ?@8 2A5< A2>5< >?B8<87<5 ?>=O; 53> 7=0G5=85. = B>BG0A 65 8<5; A2840=85 A C< 8 C:070; 5 C:07 =0?@02;5= 1>;LH5 2A53> 8<5==> ?@>B82 D@0=FC7A:>9 B>@3>2;8; GB> >= 2>A?@5I05B 22>7 AC:>=, H5;:0, ?@54<5B>2 @>A:>H8 8 GB>, 4>72>;OO 22>7 28= B>;L:> <>@5<, >= D0:B8G5A:8 C=8GB>605B 8 D@0=FC7A:CN 28==CN B>@3>2;N 2 >AA88, B0: :0: <>@5 2 @C:0E 0=3;8G0=. & 0?>;5>= ?@8:070; A>>1I8BL 2 >AA8N G5@57 >;5=:C@0 GB> >= 87-70 C:070 > B0@8D5 2>520BL =5 1C45B, => GB> >= 1C45B =0AB>@>65 ?@>B82 =51;03>65;0B5;L=>3> 4CE0, ?@>48:B>202H53> MB>B 0:B. '5@=KH52C 0?>;5>= A:070;, GB> MB>B C:07 AB>8; 52K5, A>2A5< CB5H8B5;L=K5 4;O =53> A2545=8O: @07@K2 <564C $@0=F859 8 >AA859 =5<8=C5<, ?@8G8=0 @07@K20 :>=B8=5=B0;L=0O A8AB5<0, 8 2 1;8609H5< 1C4CI5< @CAA:85 ?>@BK >B:@>NBAO 4;O 0=3;8G0=, 81> 1C4CB 40=K ;8F5=F88 4;O 22>70 :>;>=80;L=KE B>20@>2. {[68]}

 

!?5@0=A:89 ?@>18; =>2K< B0@8D>< 1@5HL 2 :>=B8=5=B0;L=>9 1;>:045, >1;53G8; 2K2>7 BO6Q;KE 8 3@><>74:8E @CAA:8E 8745;89, B> 5ABL ;5A0 8 A0;0 (8 ?5=L:8, 8 ;L=0) 2 =3;8N, ?> 0;B8G5A:8< 2>;=0< =0 AC40E ?>4 0<5@8:0=A:8< 8 1@078;LA:8< D;030<8 8, >4=>2@5<5==>, CAB0=>28; 10@L5@ 4;O 22>70 ?@54<5B>2 @>A:>H8 2 A0<>< @0AH8@5==>< 8E ?>=8<0=88. @54?>;030N, GB> 10;K A B5E ?>@ AB0;8 >1E>48BLAO >BFC 235=8O =5A:>;L:> 4>@>65 ?@56=53>. "0@8D 1811 3>40 ?@82Q; : 2>9=5 A 0?>;5>=><, : >1;53G5=8N @CAA:8E ?@>AB8 8 B>@3>2;8, : 2>AAB0=>2;5=8N :C@A0 @CAA:8E 45=53 8 : =5273>40< 4;O =538=0-AB0@H53> A>B>20@8I8 ?> ?5B5@1C@3A:>

> AC4L10 >1>H;0AL A> !?5@0=A:8< 65AB>:>. >2K9 B0@8D ?@8HQ;AO =0 @0730@ 65AB>G09H53> >1I552@>?59A:>3> M:>=><8G5A:>3> :@878A0 8 2 =3;88, 8 2 =0?>;5>=>2>9 8 B2>@8;0AL => ?>:C?0B5;L =5 ?@8=8<0; B>20@0.

B;8G=>9 8;;NAB@0F859 ?>A;C68B 48=0<8:0 F5= =0 ;Q= 2 =3;88 {[69]} 5A;8 A@02=8BL 5Q A >1JQ<0<8 @CAA:>3> M:A?>@B0.


8A. 11


8A.12

?5@8>4 1808-1812 33., >AA8O C4>2;5B2>@O;0 ?>B@51=>AB8 =3;88 2> ;L=5 =0 77,8%, {[70]} B0: GB> A@02=5=85 @5?@575=B0B82=>. 1808 3>4C, >AA8O A <0:A8<0;L=>9 70 25AL ?5@8>4 AB@>3>ABLN A>1;N40;0 CA;>28O :>=B8=5=B0;L=>9 1;>:04K.

& A0AB=K< ?5@8>4>< 4;O @CAA:>9 B>@3>2;8 1K; ?5@2K9 3>4 A>N70 A 0?>;5>=>< (8N;L 1807 - 8N;L 1808 33.), :>340 @CAA:>5 ?@028B5;LAB2> AG8B0;> F5;5A>>1@07=K< 2 A0<>< 45;5 <5H0BL 0=3;8G0=0< 2 8E A=>H5=8OE A {[71]}

 

AB5AB25==>, GB> ?@8, ?@8<5@=>, 42C:@0B=>< AB5A=5=88 22>70, F5=K =0 ;Q= 2 >=4>=5 27;5B5;8 2 1,75 @070. 0B5< 1;>:040 AB0=>28;0AL 2AQ 1>;55 4K@O2>9, M:A?>@B @>A, F5=K ?040;8, => =0G8=0O A 1 :20@B0;0 1810 3>40, :0@B8=0 A>2A5< 8=0O ?040NB 8 22>7 8 F5=K. -B> ?@>5 AC65=85 @K=:0 AK@LO.

!?5@0=A:89 >B?5@ 425@L 2 ?CAB>BC.

3-40 45;0 2 =3;88 =0G0;8 =0;06820BLAO, B0@8D 1811 3>40 AB0; 4;O >AA88 ?>;575= => 4>@>3> O8G:> : E@8AB>2C 4=N. = GB>-B> A45;0; A B0@8D0<8, 8 @CE=C; =0H 2K2>7; 8 C?0; 25:A5;L=K9 :C@A - B0:8< 1K; >1I89 3;0A.

045=85 25:A5;L=>3> :C@A0 @C1;O 2 1811 3>4C 8<55B :>@=8 8 2 M:>=><8G5A:>9 (:@878A) 8 2 ?>;8B8G5A:>9 ?@8G8=5 =>2K9 B0@8D ?>AB028; >AA8N ?5@54 2>9=>9 A 0?>;5>=><, 8 25:A5;L=K9 :C@A GCB:> >B@5038@>20; =0 MB>, 2=>2L 2>7=8:H55, >1AB>OB5;LAB2>, 0 28=>2=8:>< 1C4CI59 2>9=K AB0; B>B 65 3>AC40@AB25==K9 A5:@5B0@L, 8E08; 8E09;>28G !?5@0=A:89.

 

7.3. A5>1I55 154AB285.

07C<55BAO, AB5A=5=85 2K2>70, ?045=85 25:A5;L=>3> :C@A0 8 =>2K5 =0;>38 1K;8 154>9 2A5>1I59. > GB> A F5=0<8 =0 E;51? 0: >1AB>O;8 45;0 2 4@C38E G0ABOE >AA88, =5 B>;L:> 2 A:>2A:>9 3C15@=88?

865 ?@8254Q=K 3@0D8:8 AB>8<>AB8 (@>7=8F0) ?C40 @68 =0 2A59 B5@@8B>@88 >AA89A:>9 8 . {[72]}

@C??0 @09>=>2 I

!525@=K9 @-=: 5B5@1C@3, @E0=35;LA:, >23>@>4, 5B@>702>4A:, A:>2.

>;6A:89 @09>=: 070=L, 5=70, !0@0B>2, !8<18@A:.

@810;B89A:89 @09>=: 8B020, 525;L, 830.

&5=B@0;L=>-5G5@=>7Q<=K9 @-=: ;048<8@, >;>340, 0;C30, >AB@><0, >A:20, 86=89 >23>@>4, !<>;5=A:, "25@L, /@>A;02;L.

#:@08=A:89 @-=: 852, >;B020, '5@=83>2

0?04=K9 @-=: 8;L=>, 8B51A:, @>4=>, >2=>, 8=A:, >38;52

.3>-0?04=K9 @-=: 8B><8@, 0<5=5F->4>;LA:.

 

 

@C??0 @09>=>2 II

&5=B@0;L=>-'5@=>75<=K9 @-=: >@>=56, C@A:, @5;, O70=L, "0<1>2, "C;0, %0@L:>2.

>AB>G=K9 @-=: OB:0, 5@<0@0, #D0

.3>->AB>G=K9 @-=: AB@0E0=L, >2>G5@:0AA:, !B02@>?>;L

@C??0 @09>=>2 III

!B5?=>9 @-=: :0B5@8=>A;02, 8H8=52, !8?>;L, %5@A>=, 5@GL, "030=@>3, $5>4>A8O

 

 

 

8A 13. >7=8G=0O F5=0 ?C40 @68 2 0AA83=0F8>==KE 8 7>;>BKE :>?59:0E, 1802 1825 3>4.


K 2848<, GB> 70 452OBL ;5B:

- 2 3@C??5 @09>=>2 I (7 @09>=>2) 1811-9 AB0; 3>4>< @57:>3> ?045=8O - ?>A;5 =5A:>;L:8E ;5B @>AB0 - AB>8<>AB8 E;510 (2 0AA83=0F8OE).

- 2 3@C??5 @09>=>2 II (3 @09>=0) 1811-9 AB0; 3>4>< >AB0=>2:8 8;8 @57:>3> 70<54;5=8O B5 AB0 ?>A;5 =5A:>;L:8E ?@54H5AB2CNI8E ;5B.

- 2 3@C??5 @09>=>2 III (1 @09>=) 1811-9 AB0; 3>4>< <0:A8<0;L=>3> @>AB0 AB>8<>AB8 E;510 (2 0AA83=0F8OE). 0B5< =0ABC?8; A?04.

B0:, 1811 3>4 AB0; 2K83@KH5= 4;O ?><5I8:>2 A 75<;O<8 2 >2>@>AA88 (!B5?=>9 @09>=: :0B5@8=>A;02, 8H8=52, !8?>;L, %5@A>=, 5@GL, "030=@>3, $5>4>A8O); ?@>G85, B> 5ABL 75<;52;045;LFK B@048F8>==KE @09>=>2 >AA88, 4>;6=K 1K;8 87@O4=> ?>B5@OBL 2 4>E>40E >B 8<5=89 (5A;8 AG8B0BL 2 0AA83=0F8OE). "5< A04 >:070;AO 154AB25==K< =5 B>;L:> 4;O =538=0->BF0, ?@54?>;>68B5;L=> ?A:>2A:>3> ?><5I8:0.

1811 3>4C, >= 2K@060OAL AB0@K< B5@<8=>< :065BAO B8?8G5A:8< ?@8<5@>< AB>;8G=>3> 1N@>:@0B0, 682CI53> 70 AGQB 8<5=89, A> 2A5<8 =5273>40<8, ?02H8<8 =0 MBC A>F80;L=CN 3@C??C.

 

K 2848< AB@0==K9 87282 2 AC4L15 !?5@0=A:>3>. !B0;0 ;8 AB018;870F8O 0AA83=0F8>==>3> :C@A0 1;03>< 4;O AB@0=K? 5A><=5==>; A8;L=59H0O 1C<06=0O 8=D;OF8O :@09=5 2@54=0 4;O M:>=><8:8. !B0; ;8 4>1@>< 4;O 8 40? 07C<55BAO; >AA8O =5<0;> AB@040;0 >B A>1;N45=8O CA;>289 :>=B8=5=B0;L=>9 1;>:04K. K; ;8 E>@>H ;0= D8=0=A>2, >A2OIQ==K9 8<5=5< !<8B0? -:>=><8ABK =5 @0AE>4OBAO 2> <=5=8OE ;0= 1K; E>@>H.

2<5AB5 A B5<, <, :0: 2A5 MB8 70<5G0B5;L=K5 =>20F88 =0>B<0HL C40@8;8 ?> CAB>N 8 A;C60I8< AB>;8G=K< 42>@O=0<.

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

>340 0@0<78=, =0E>4OAL 2 5B5@1C@35, 2 18163., ?>;CG8; ;5=BC, B> >= ?8A0; : 65=5, GB> >AC40@L ?>60;>20; 5< >1@07><. 0AA:07 3@0D0 ;C4>20 >1JOA=O5B MB8 A;>20: >AC40@L, =03@0482 0@0<78=0, 70<5B8; 5A>15==>N 2K@078B5;L=>ABLN, GB> 60;C5B ;5=BC =5 70 AB>@8N, 0 70 0?8A:C. {[73]}

 

;O A;02K 0@0<78=0 =5 =C6=> =8:0:8E ;5=B, => 4;O A;02K ;5:A0=4@0 B0:>2>5 ?>60;>20=85 ;5=BK 25AL<0 C<5AB=> >= =5 0@0<78=, 0 2A53> ;8HL 8 @. AG0ABLN, ;5:A0=4@ I AB0; B>340 =0 AB>@>=C 0@0<78=0, ?@>O282 A51O ?>4;8==K< 3>AC40@AB25==K< 45OB5;5<. ! B0:8< ?5@2K< <8=8AB@>< 2>520BL ?@>B82 0?>;5>=0 1K;> =52>7<>6=>, >?>@0 B@>=0 42>@O=AB2> @>?B0;8 ?@>B82 @07>@8B5;L=KE 459AB289 !?5@0=A:>3>. >< @0745;82H89AO =5 CAB>8B, GB> 1K =8 3>2>@8;8 3;C1>:85 =>B@5HQ==K9 >B 3>AC40@AB25==KE 701>B =0 2@5 MB> A;CG8;>AL B>;L:> 25A=>9 1812 3>40, 0 ?>:0 =0 42>@5 1811 3>4 8 H5AB=04F0B8;5B=89 235=89 ?@8E>48B : >BFC ?@>A8BL > A>1AB25==>< 1N465B5.

 

8. 073>2>@ >BF0 A AK=><.

:>=B5:AB5 2KH5A:070==>3>, <564C >BF>< 8 AK=>< 2>7=8:0NB =587156=K5 2708<=K5 =5C4>2>;LAB28O. ><5=B 4;O >BE>40 235=8O 87 >1I53> 4><0H=53> E>7O9AB20 >:07K205BAO, 3>2>@O, =5C40G=K<. 0B5205BAO =0BO=CBK9 480;>3, 2>7<>6=> A?>@. %>BO, > A?>@5 < ;8HL 87 G5@=>2KE @540:F89:

B5F 53> 5<0;&
B5F =5 A>3;0H0;AO A =8<&
B5F 5B25G0;&
@54 =8< >B5F 53> <>;G0;& {[74]}

 

?@54?>;>65==KE, 154AB25==KE >1AB>OB5;LAB20E =538=0-AB0@H53> <>6=> ?@54?>;>68BL 8 A?>@, 8 3>@5AB=>5 <>;G0=85; 20@80=B>2 =0?@0H8205BAO <=>65AB2>, => O >AB0=>2;NAL =0 >4=>< >B5F ?>?@>ABC A?@0H8205B 235=8O, G5;>25:0 A>2@5<5==>3>, =0G8B0==>3>, A25653> @07C<><, 8A:CHQ==>3> 2 =>259H8E B5>@8OE GB> 70 1540, MB>B 40< !<8B? :0: 65 1C45B 40;LH5?

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

> >BFC 235=8O =5 =C6=K B5>@8O 8 ?>;5<8:0 2>:@C3 =5Q. 4OI53> 2> 27@>A;CN 687=L AK=0. 40< !<8B, 2>>1I5 3>2>@O, =5 ?8A0; > G0AB=KE D8=0=A0E @CAA:>3> ?><5I8:0 8 G8=>2=8:0 >= ?8A0; > D8=0=A0E 3>AC40@AB25==KE; B> 65 8 0@0<78=. 8:B> 87 =8E =5 <>65B ?><>GL >BFC 235=8O, 8 B>B =0E>48BAO ?@>AB59H8< >1@07>< >B40QB 75<;8 2 70;>3. 54AB25==>5 ?045=85 4>E>4>2 2<5AB5 A 2K45;5=85< AK=0 =5 >AB02;ONB 5@0.

!:>;L:> >= <>3 2K@CG8BL >B B0:>3> 70;>30?

>7<>6=>AB59 C =53> 1K;> 425: ?>;CG8BL AAC4C 2 70;>3 =0A5;Q==KE 8<5=89 >B 0Q<=>3> 10=:0 ;81> 2 !>E@0==KE :07=0E ?@8 ?5:C=A:>< A>25B5.

0Q<=K9 10=: ?@8=8<0; 70;>38 8 2K4020; AAC4K 4> 8725AB=KE ;5B=8E 4=59 1812 3>40 - 70B5< 45OB5;L=>ABL 53> ?> 2K40G5 AAC4 ?@5:@0B8;0AL 4> 1824 3>40 (A 1822 3>40 AAC4K 2K4020;8AL B>;L:> ?> 2KA>G09H525;5=8N). {[75]} ! 1804 ?>, A>>B25BAB25==>, 1812 3>4 0Q<=K9 10=: 4020; ?> 60 @C1;59 70 @5287A:CN 4CHC, {[76]} A@>:>< =0 25 ;5B 87 6%. {[77]}

!>E@0==K5 :07=K =5 ?@5:@0B8;8 2K40GC AAC4 ?>4 70;>3 =0A5;Q==KE 8<5=89 8 =0 2@59=K. ! 1800 3. A@>: :@548B>20=8O AB0; 8 ;5B. {[78]} ?5@2K5 B@8 3>40 C?;0G820;8AL >4=8 ?@>F5=BK, 0 2 ?>A;54CNI85 ?OBL ;5B - ?@>F5=BK 8 ?> >4=>9 ?OB>9 AAC65==>3> :0?8B0;0 2 3>4. ! 1785 ?> 1817 3>4 70 30 @5287A:8E 4CH 4020;8 1000 @C1;59. {[79]}

"0:, =538=-AB0@H89 <>3 ?>:@KBL 45D8F8B A5<59=>3> 1N465B0 (7 10 000 @C1;59 0AA.), B> 5ABL ?0@8@>20BL =0ABC?82H85 8 A:25@=K5 2@5<5=0, 70;>682 >B 120 4> 300 4CH, 2 :0:>5-B> 87 42CE :@548B=KE CG@5645=89.

 

$8=0=A>2K5 >1AB>OB5;LAB20 ?5B5@1C@3A:>3> 42>@O=AB20 1810-11 3>4>2 <>6=> >?@545;8BL :0: :@878A=K5. 8E, A>1AB25==>, <0B5@80;L=>;>65=8N - 154AB25==>6=>9G82>@ 5ABL ?@>87>H;> 8 B><;5=85 4CE0 2 284C AB@0==KE 04<8=8AB@0B82=KE =>20F89. A@54>B>G85<, 8AB>G=8:><, 42868B5;5< =>2KE 45; 1K; >48= G5;>25:, A> 2AO:8<8 ><5@><, $5>:@8B><, 40<>< !<8B><.

=O7L =4@59, =5 2ABC?0O 2 @073>2>@, =01;N40; 2A5 42865=8O !?5@0=A:>3>, MB>3> G5;>25:0, =5402=> =8GB>6=>3> A5<8=0@8AB0 8 B5?5@L 2 @C:0E A2>8E, - MB8E 15;KE, ?CE;KE @C:0E, 8<52H53> AC4L1C >AA88, :0: 4C<0; >;:>=A:89.

=O7O =4@5O ?>@078;> =5>1KG09=>5, ?@57@8B5;L=>5 A?>:>9AB285, A :>B>@K< !?5@0=A:89 >B25G0; AB0@8:C. =, :070;>AL, A =587<5@8<>9 2KA>BK >1@0I0; : =5 A2>5 A=8AE>48B5;L=>5 A;>2>. >340 AB0@8: AB0; 3>2>@8BL A;8H:>< 3@><:>, !?5@0=A:89 C;K1=C;AO 8 A:070;, GB> >= =5 <>65B AC48BL > 2K3>45 8;8 =52K3>45 B>3>, GB> C3>4=> 1K;> 3>AC40@N.

 

!B@>D0 1-VII A0B=K< 157 707>@0 >1@07>< ;>68BAO 2 10-11-9 3>4K. :><, > GQ< >=0? 8E08;5 8E09;>28G5 !?5@0=A:><; > 8:>;05 8E09;>28G5 0@0<78=5; > :>=B8=5=B0;L=>9 1;>:045, 0AA83=0F8OE, A5@51@O=>< 8 25:A5;L=>< @C1;5 => =8:0: =5 > B>=:>ABOE M:>=><8G5A:8E B5>@89, =5 >1 >B;8G88 !<8B0 >B D878>:@0B>2 ;81> <5@:0=B8;8AB>2. -B> 1KB ?5B5@1C@3A:>9 42>@O=A:>9 A5B0, 218B0O 2 14 AB@>:.

 

9. 2CE-AD0.

AB5AB25==>, 235=89 3>2>@8; > !<8B5 =5 B>;L:> A >BF><, => 8 2 >1I5AB25 B>;:8 B>3> 2@5<5=8 =5 >1E>48;8 !?5@0=A:>3>, 0?>;5>=0, 1;>:04C, =>20F88 ?@028B5;LAB20; 2>9B8 8 >1@0I0BLAO 2 A25B5 157 B0:>3> 465=B;L<5=A:>3> <8=8 =5;>2:>.

B=5AO 1-VII 2 1818 3>4, , >B=>A8< 235=8O : >G5=L C7:>N75 ;03>45=AB28O A>AB>O;8 >:>;> 200 G5;>25:. @70<0A5 - 420 45AOB:0. > 4;O AB@>DK 1-VII, >B=5AQ==>9 : 1810-11 3>4C, 235=8N 4>AB0B>G=> 1K;> @>48BLAO 2 42>@O=A:>9 ?5B5@1C@3A:>9 A5<8 8<5=8O<8. &8B0BK 87 ><0=0 2 ?8AL<0E, 87 @5G8 "C@35=520 2 @70<0A5 40NB >1JOA=5=85 4;O 1818-19 3>40, ?><5I0O =538=0 2 <0;K9, C7:89 :@C6>: ?5B5@1C@3A:8E 68B5;59; F8B0B0 87 0?8A:8 0@0<78=0 >B=>A8BAO, ?>60;C9, : 1>;LH8=AB2C @CAA:8E 3C15@=89 A BKAOG0<8 ?><5I8GL8E AK=>2.

K; ;8 235=89 ?>A;54>20B5;5< 0@28:0, B> 5ABL .."C@35=520 2 >A2>1>48B5;L=KE CAB@5<;5=8OE ?>A;54=53>? >7<>6=>, 40< !<8B =8:0:>9 =5 ?A524>=8< !?5@0=A:>3>, => A0OI89 H>B;0=4A:89 M:>=><8AB, 8 :=830 53> >30BAB2> =0@>4>2 - AB0;0 4;O =538=0 @C:>2>4AB2>< : 459AB28N? = 254L 70<5=8; 10@I8=C ;Q3:8< >1@>:><, 8 @01 1;03>A;>28; =51>? #2K, => A?>A>1 278<0=8O =538=K< D5>40;L=>9 @5=BK =5 2?>;=5 3>2>@8B >1 53> 01>;8F8>=87<5.

 

9.1. 3> D5>40;L=0O @5=B0.

0 B@5B89 @>I0, E>;< 8 ?>;5
3> =5 70=8<0;8 1>;5;
>B>< C6 =02>48;8 A>=;
>B>< C2845; OA=> >=,
'B> 8 2 45@52=5 A:C:0 B0 65,
%>BL =5B =8 C;8F, =8 42>@F>2,
8 :0@B, =8 10;>2, =8 AB8E>2.

>;65= A ?@8A:>@185< >B<5B8BL, GB> ?@5A;>2CBK9 O@5< 10@I8=K 70<5=Q==K9 235=85< =538=K< =0 ;Q3:89 >1@>: AB0; =5:>B>@K< D5B8H5<, :0:8<-B> =5C18205:070B5;LAB2>< >=538=A:>3> ;815@0;87<0. 0 45;5, BCB =5B =5?@5@5:05<>3> 01>;8F8>=87<0 =538=0-AK=0, => ?@>AB> 53> ?@0:B8G5A:0O ?5B5@1C@3A:0O A<5B:0.

=538= =5 >1O70B5;L=> A;54C5B 40<8BC 8 845O< !>N70 ;03>45=AB28O. = 459AB2C5B A>25@H5==> 2 ?@0:B8:5 @CAA:>3> :@5?>AB=>3> ?@020, ?@>O2;OO E>7O9AB25==K9 >?KB 8 1;87:>5 7=0:> A 687=5==K<8 @50;8O<8.

235=89 ?@>AB> =5 <>3 >AB028BL 2 C=0A;54>20==>< 8<5=88 10@I8==>3> ?>;>65=8O, "0: :0: 10@I8==0O A8AB5<0 A5;LA:>3> E>7O9AB20 B@51>20;0 AB@>3>3> =5CAB0==>3> =04A<>B@0 =04 @01>G8<8& 8 2 B0:8E 8<5=8OE =5@54:> :@5ABLO= ?5@52>48;8 =0 >1@>:. {[80]} 2B>@5AA0 8<55B 745AL 2 284C 1>;LH85 8<5=8O, => ACBL 8<5==> 2 AB@>3>< =04A<>B@5 ?@8 10@I8==>< A1>@5 D5>40;L=>9 @5=BK 2 =04A<>B@5 70 @01>B0<8 =0 E>7O9A:>9 70?0H:5; 4O4O =538=0 2 45@52=5 68; 8 70 45;>< =0478@0;; =538=, :065BAO, 68BL 2 45@52=5 =5 A>18@0;AO ?> :@09=59 <5@5, >= B>G=> =5 65;0; 22O7K20BLAO 2 ?@8AB0;L=>5 E>7O9AB2>20=85 (A<. M?83@0D : MB>9 3;025) - 0 E>@>H89 C?@02;ONI89 AB>8; E>@>H8E 45=53. >B 8 2KH5; :@5ABLO=0< ?5@52>4 =0 >1@>: 8 =51> @01 1;03>A;>28;. =B5@5A=>, GB> A0< >B<0= =0 AB@. 589 ><<5=B0@8O ?@82>48B 2K45@6:C 87 70<5B:8 ."C@35=520 5GB> > 10@I8=5 A> A;>20<8 ><5I8:8 ?>GB8 =8:>340 =5 682CB 2 >1@>G=KE 45@52=OE. 45AL 206=> ?@028;L=> @0AAB028BL ?@8G8=C 8 A;54AB285.

0@I8=0 278<0=85 @5=BK AK@K< B@C4>< :@5ABLO= =0 3>A?>4A:>9 70?0H:5, 0 B0:>9 B@C4 <>65B 1KBL 8 2K3>45= 8 =52K3>45= 8 ?@>AB> @07>@8B5;5= 5A;8 :@5?>AB=K5 =5@0482K 8;8 =04C<0NB =02@548BL. 0 B0:8<8 @01>B0<8 =5>1E>48< ?@8AB0;L=K9 ?@8A<>B@; GB> 4> >1@>:0 MB> ;8HL AC<<0 45=53 ;81> :0:85-B> ?@>4C:BK ?@8 =0BC@0;L=>9 53> D>@<5; BCB 4>AB0B>G=> =07=0G8BL 25;8G8=C 2K?;0B 8 =0:070=85 70 =54>8<:C =8:0: =5 =04A<0B@820O 70 :@5ABLO=A:>9 45OB5;L=>ABLN, =5 B@0BOAL =0 4>1@>A>25AB=>3> C?@02;ONI53>.

'B> :0A05BAO 7=0G8B5;L=>3> C<5=LH5=8O 4>E>4>2 - MB> =5 B0:. 065 ;Q3:89 >1@>: <>3 AB0BL 2K3>4=55 BO6Q;>9 10@I8=K. 0@I8=0, ?>2B>@NAL, >48= B>;L:> B@C4 A =5>?@545;Q==K< 2284C A;CG09=>AB59, A2>9AB25==KE 75<;545;8N @57C;LB0B><; >1@>: MB> A0< @57C;LB0B, 70@0=55 >1JO2;5==K9 ?><5I8:><. >?@>A GB> 2K3>4=55, >1@>G=0O 8;8 10@I8==0O A8AB5<0? 70=8<0; C<=>38E @CAA:8E M:>=><8AB>2 18 8 19 25:0, => B0: 8 =5 =0HQ; >4=>7=0G=>3> @07@5H5=8O. {[81]}

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

>A<>B@52H8 2 ;8F> C:07C, 2 :>B>@>< >6840;8 2AB@5B8BL >:>=G0B5;L=K9 2>?@>A 1KBL 8;8 =5 1KBL, 8 =5 2AB@5B82H8 1C:20;L=> 53>, @5H8;8, GB> 45;> =5 :0A05BAO 4> =8E, GB> 8E 5I5 =5 7>2CB @0AA5:0BL 3>@4852 C75;, 8 A;54>20B5;L=> =5 >1 G5< E;>?>B0BL. > 5B5@1C@3 =5 4>2>;LAB2>20;AO A2>8<8 B>;:0<8; >= 640; 25AB59 87 >A:2K. ;02=>5, 3>2>@8;8, GB> A:065B >A:20; B0< 682CB 1;865 : AF5=5, =0 :>B>@>9 4>;6=0 @07K3@0BLAO 4@0<0. 'B> 65 A:070;0 2 A0<>< 45;5 >A:20? ! ?5@2>N ?>GB>N >=0 ?@8A;0;0 8725AB85, GB> ?><5I8:8 153CB 87 45@525=L 2 >A:2C, ?>B> :@5ABLO=5 1C4CB 1C=B>20BL =5?@5<5==>. @5ABLO=5 ?><5I8GL8, >4=0:>, =5 1C=B>20;8 2 A0<>< 45;5. > A45;0;8AL 15A?>@O4:8 <564C 3>AC40@AB25==K<8 :@5ABLO=0<8 2 :070=A:>9 3C15@=88, 8 >A:20 ?>A?5H8;0 C254><8BL 5B5@1C@3, GB> 2 :070=A:>9 3C15@=88 :@5ABLO=5 271C=B>20;8AL 2A;54AB285 C:070. {[82]}

 

2>B 7=0<5=8B0O A5?>440=59H0O 70?8A:0 <8=8AB@0 2=CB@5==8E 45; 0=A:>3> >B 023CAB0 1859 3>40 73;O4 =0 ?>;>65=85 :@5ABLO=A:>3> 2>?@>A0 2 =0AB>OI55 2@5

5@2>5 8725AB85 > ?@54?>;>65==>9 @5D>@<5 2>71C48;> 2 1>;LH8=AB25 ?><5I8:>2 157>BG5B=K9 AB@0E. B >1=0@>4>20=8O 5O >6840;8 2>7B 2K?>;=5=8O - A>25@H5==>9 ?>B5@8 A>1AB25==>AB8. & !G8B0;8 @5D>@<5=8<>N ;8HL : >4=8< 70?04=K< 3C15@=8O< 8 =52>7<>6=>N 2 >AB0;L=KE ?>;>A0E >AA88. @8<5@ A0=:B?5B5@1C@3A:8E 8 =8653>@>4A:8E 42>@O= =5 <>3 5I5 40BL @5H8B5;L=>3> >1>@>B0 45;C; >6840;8 >B7K20 >A:2K.

 

'B> A:065B >A:20, GB> >B25B8B ?@>28=F8O =0 AB>;8G=K5 2K4C<:8? 45AL 425 >AA88 ?><5I8: A5;LA:89, ?@>28=F80;L=K9, 8 8 25: 87 3>@>40-ABOE A@548 1>;>B, 87 :0I5520 ;>3>20 =0H59 8AB>@88.

5@>9 @><0=0 =8:0: =5 ?@>2>48B 2 687=L 8458 !>N70 ;03>45=AB28O. = @50;8AB, ?@0:B8: 2 A2>Q< =>2>< E>7O9AB25.

>>1I5, =5 B>;L:> >1@>: 8;8 B>;L:> 10@I8=0, => B0: =07K205<0O A<5H0==0O ?>28==>ABL =0?@8<5@, >1@>: 4;O G0AB8 :@5ABLO= 2<5AB5 A 10@I8=>9 4;O ?@>G8E, ;81> >1@>G=K5 BO3;0, >B1K20NI85 10@I8=C 2> AB>;L:>-B> (=0?@8<5@) 78<=8E 8/8;8 65=A:8E 4=59 ;81> 10@I8==K5 :@5ABLO=5, >1@5<5=Q==K5 =0BC@0;L=K< 8;8 45=56=K< >1@>:>< - 1K;8 45;>< @O4>2K<, >1K:=>25==K<. "0:, 2 8<5=88 >;48=> ?><5I8:0 .!.CH:8=0 ?> A>AB>O=8N =0 <09 1834 3>40:

&B=>A8;AO O : !5@35N L2>28GC! =0 AG5B >1@>G=KE BO3>;, GB> =0 1834 3>4 >?@545;5=> 77- A85 G8A;> 2K1K;> 420 B53;0, 87 >B?CI5==KE 2 #@0;LA: 4;O 70@>1>B:>2 =0 >1@>:, B0< 65 ?><5@;> 2 G5;>25:0, =0;8F> >AB05BAO >1@>G=KE BO3>; 75-BL =0 10@I8=5 175. {[83]}

 

"0: ?8H5B CH:8=C 5=L:>2A:89, MB>B 157=@02AB25==K9 C?@02;ONI89 53> 1>;48=A:8< 8<5=85<.

0@I8=0 8;8 >1@>:, 10@I8=0 8 >1@>:, =0BC@0;L=K9 8;8 45=56=K9 >1@>: 8 B.?. <5B>4K >?B8<0;L=>3> A1>@0 D5>40;L=>9 @5=BK, >=8 <5=O;8AL 8 :><18=8@>20;8AL 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B ?>B@51=>AB59 4=O, ?>4G0A 5653>4=> 2 :0:><-B> 8<5=88. "0:, 5A;8 ?><5I8: 682QB 2 C40;5=88 8;8 =5 65;05B 4>B>H=> C?@02;OBL 8<5=85< A:>@55 >1@>:; 5A;8 <0;> 75<;8 ;8H=85 BO3;0 ?CA:0NBAO =0 >1@>: 8 70=8<0NBAO >BE>68<8 ?@><8; 4>@>605B @>6L? >1@>: 2 =0BC@0;L=>< 2845, ;81> 10@I8=0; @O4>< =5B <5AB 4;O >BE>653> ?@>1@>: 2 =0BC@0;L=>< 2845 8;8 10@I8=0; 65;0=85 2K60BL 87 75<;8 <0:A8 F5=K =0 75@=> AB018;L=K? >1@>: 2 45=56=>< 2845; ?;>4>@>4=K5 75<;8? 10@I8=0& 8 B0: 40;55. -B> <5E0=87<, A?>A>1 ?>;CG5=8O <0:A8<0;L=> 2>7<>6=>9 2 40==KE CA;>28OE 2K3>4K. !>>B25BAB25==>, AC48BL >1 01>;8F8>=87<5 ?><5I8:0 ?> ?@8=OB> 8<5=8OE A?>A>1C 278<0=8O D5>40;L=>9 @5=BK :0: <8=8?@><5BG82>. "5< 1>;55 GB> =0702B@0 87<5=OBAO @K=>G=K5 CA;>28O, 2K@0AB5B =0A5;5=85 ?><5ABLO, :>;KE=CBAO F5=K =0 ?@>4C:BK 75<;545;8O, =0ABC?8B =5C@>609 8;8 ?@84QB C@>609=K9 3>4 8 ?><5I8: ?>A048B ?@56=8E >1@>G=KE =0 10@I8=C, ;81> >B?CAB8B 10@I8==KE =0 >1@>:. = (?><5I8:) 254L A;548B 70 45;>< 8 87 AB>;8FK. 0: ?8H5B .!.CH:8= 5=L:>2A:>

& K E>@>H> A45;0;8, GB> 4> A8E ?>@ =5 ?@8ABC?8;8 : ?@>4065 E;510. 52>7<>6=>, GB>1 F5=K =5 2>72KA8;8AL. AG0ABLN, <>3C 5I5 ?>4>640BL. {[84]}

 

K25AB8 >=538=A:89 ;815@0;87< 87 >4=>3> ;8HL D0:B0 ?5@52>40 :@5ABLO= A 10@I8=K =0 >1@>:, @07C<55BAO, 2>7<>6=> B5< 1>;55 GB> >1@>: AB0; ;Q3:8<. > MB> =5 AB@>389 2K2>4. = =5 =5871565=. "5< A05 2 @><0=5 C:070=85 =0 01>;8F8>=87< 235=8O =5 5ABL B25@4L =57K1;5<0O, => >1>A=>20==0O 38?>B570.

 

9.2. ?>@K 2=CB@5==59 E@>=>;>388.

 

AB0BL5 :0: 1C4B> C:07K20;8AL 3@0=8FK #:10@0, => >?>@=K5 ?C=:BK =07K20;8AL :0:85-B> =58725AB=K5 @5:8, 40 :@0B5@K, 40 3>@=K5 F5?8 MB>9 65 >1;0AB8.

%..>@E5A, ";5=, #:10@..

 

"@048F8>==0O 2=CB@5==OO E@>=>;>38O 235=8O =538=0 ( .. 20=>2- 07C<=8:, . . @>4A:89, !. . >=48, . . 01>:>2, 8 ... >B<0=) AB>8B =0 =5A:>;L:8E >?>@0E. 'B> :0A05BAO ?5@2>9 3;02K: {[85]}

 

-?87>4 @><0=0

@5

@5<5==0O >?>@0 2=CB@5==59 E@>=>;>388 @><0=0

59AB285 ?5@2>9 3;02K

78<0 1819 - 25A=0 1820

0G0;L=0O 40B0 >?@545;O5BAO C:070=85< 2 ?@548A;>288 : >B45;L=>=5G=0O C:070=85< =0 B>, GB> 2AB@5G0 35@>O 8 02B>@0 ?@>87>H;0 2 5B5@1C@35 2 1820 3., 2 ?5@8>4 15;KE =>G59& {[86]}

KE>4 =538=0 2 A25B

1811-1812

!B@>D0 4-IX. >B :0: C18; >= 2>A5<8=CA 8 ;5B 40QB 1811 - 1812 33.

BJ574 =538=0 2 45@52=N

25A=0 1820

AB@>D0E L 8 LI A>45@68BAO =0<5: =0 B>, GB> >BJ574 35@>O 2 45@52=N 1K; ?> 2@5<5=8 1;87>: : =0A8;LAB25==> 87 5B5@1C@30. 2K5E0; 2 AAK;:C 6 <0O 1820 3. {[87]}

BJ574 =538=0 87 45@52=8

D52@0;L-<0@B 1821

14 O=20@O 4CM;L 8 3815;L 5=A:>3>. 5A=0 1821 D52@0;L 1822 3. 2@5<>9 3;02K.
0G0;L=0O 40B0 >?@545;O5BAO ?5@2K<8 AB8E0<8 3;02K:

>=8<8 ;CG0<8,
! >:@5AB=KE 3>@ C65 A=530
!
1560;8 <8 @CGLO<8
0 ?>B>?;5==K5 ;C30.

"0O=L5 A=53>2 2 A@54=59 8 A525@=59 ?>;>A5 >AA88 ?@>8AE>48B <564C =0G0;>< <0@B0& 8 A5@548=>9 0?@5;O& >=5G=0O 40B0 <>65B 1KBL 2K2545=0 87 B>3>, GB> 2 AB@>D5 XLI :=O6=0 ;8=0 A>>1I05B :0: > =5402=5< A>1KB88, GB> @0=48A>= 55 2 A>G5;L=8: =025AB8;. !>G5;L=8: (1K20; @>645AB25=A:89 8 :@5I5=A:89) :0=C= 78<=8E ?@074=8:>2 >645AB20 8;8 @5I5=8O, B> 5ABL @5GL 245B > ?@54?@074=8G=>< 2878B5 :>=F0 1821 8;8 =0G0;0 1822 3. 564C B5< 0@8=K ?@81K;8 2 >A:2C 5I5 ?> 78<=574=5E>48B 8 ?>A;54=89 A@>: 7, XXXI, 2) ?CB8, B> 5ABL 2 D52@0;5 1822 3.
$52@0;L <0@B 1821 3. >BJ574 =538=0 2 5B5@1C@3.

#AB0=02;8205BAO =0 >A=>20=88 B>3>, GB> 2> 2@5<>2 8 GC2AB28B5;L=KE 40< (7, IV, 56) 2 45@52=N =538=0 B0< C6 =5B 8 3@CAB=K9 >= >AB028; A;54 (7, V, 1314).
{[88]}

>4 @>645=8O =538=0

1795

" 3;025 2>AL<>9 A:070=>, GB>, :>340 =538= ?>A;5 4CM;8 >AB028; A2>N 45@52=N, 5 26 ;5B:

>682 157 F5;8, 157 B@C4>2
> 4204F0B8 H5AB8 3>4>2 (VIII, XII, 1011).
{[89]}

KG8B0O >B 1821 3>40 26 ;5B ?>;CG05< 1795 3>4.

 

"> 5ABL, 1-VII =5 G8A;8BAO A@548 >?>@=KE B>G5: 2=CB@5==59 E@>=>;>388 @><0=0 8, 7=0G8B, 42865=85 5Q 2 @0<:0E B@048F8>==>3> 2@5<5==>3> ?@>AB@0=AB20 =538=0 (<564C 1811 8 1820 3>4><) ?> <5=LH59 <5@5, 2>7<>6=>.

564C ?@>G53>, MB> >7=0G05B >BACBAB285 2 AB@>D5 2=CB@5==8E ?@8<5B 8AB>@8G5A:>3> 2@5<5=8.

> 1C45< >B:@>25==K ?@8<5BK 1818 3>40 B0< 2AQ 65 5ABL >4=0 =5>BGQB;820O: 75<;8 >B4020BL 2 70;>3 AB0;> >1KG=K< 45;>< ?>A;5 2>9=K 1812 3>40, 0 2B>@0O A>25@H5==> OA=0O <5AB>8<5=85

 

9.3. !8=B57.

1-VII 2K3;O48B =5:>B>@K< 381@84>< A G5BK@L:0<8, >B=>AOI8<8AO : 1818 3>4C 8 45AOBLN AB@>:0<8 A =5:>B>@K<8 ?@8<5B0<8 :0: 1818, B0: 8 1810-11 3>4>2 ?@8GQ< ?>A;54=85 ?@8<5BK, =0 <>9 273;O4, >BGQB;8255. BAN40 <>6=> 42830BLAO 2 42CE =0?@02;5=8OE: ;81> ?5@5BO=CBL 1-VII 2 :0:>9-B> >48= 87 ?5@8>4>2, F5;8:><, ?@5=51@530O ?@87=0:0<8 2B>@>3> ?5@8>40; ;81> ?@54?>;>68BL 2 MB>9 AB@>D5 A>548=5=85 2@5 4>?CAB8<>, CG8BK20O <5AB> 1-VII 2 B5:AB5. !B@>D0 MB0 @0A?>;>65=0 :0: @07 >:>;> ABK:0 <564C >B@>G5AB2>< 235=8O 8 53> A25BA:>9 687=LN. >>1I5, ABK:>< MB8< 4>;6=0 1K;0 1K AB0BL 2>9=0 => 2>9=K 2 ?5@2>9 3;025 =538=0 =5B.

!B@>DK 1-II 1-VII 548=K9 :0A:04, >?8A0=85 =538=0, 22>4 2 >1@0I5=85 3;02=>3> 35@>O, 8 AB@>D0 1-VII 70B @O4. 45AL A?;>HL ?5@5G8A;ONBAO A2>9AB20 =538=0, 2K=5A5==K5 8< 87 45BAB20 8 >B@>G5AB20 8 ?@54JO2;5==K5 5B5@1C@3C A ?>@>30 A>25@H5==>;5B8O B> 5ABL, 2 1811 3>4C. >=5G=>, 2A5 MB8 A2>9AB20 A>E@0=8;8AL 70 =8< 8 4> >BJ5740 2 45@52=N, B0: GB> ?><5B8BL 1819 3>4>< >4=C B>;L:> AB@>DC 1-VII 87 MB>3> :0A:040 :065BAO 459AB285< =5>1O70B5;L=K<. "5 :89: 02B>@ A;>2=> IQ;:05B AGQB0<8 4515B, :@548B. #<55B 2 A>25@H5=AB25 ?>-D@0=FC7A:8; C<55B B0=F520BL <07C@:C; >B;8G=> >45205BAO; 8<55B <0=5@K 4>AB0B>G=> 4;O A25BA:>3> >1I5=8O, ?@8=OB; 8 A=>20, 157 ?5@5@K20: ?;>E> 7=05B ;0BK=8; =54>AB0B>G=> 2 8AB>@88; 2?@>G5<, ;>2>: 2 ?>;L7>20=88 >1@K2:0<8 7=0=89; 3;CE : AB8E0<, : 8E B5E=>;>388; G8B0; !<8B0& !B>?. 1@K2 B5 BF><. <5==> MB> >A06820=85 @KA8AB>3>, 4@>1=>3> ?>;QB0 AB8E0 =5<54;5==> ?@8:>2K205B 3;07. 40;LH5 C65 =5 :0A:04, 0 ?;02=>5 B5G5=85 @><0=0, =5B>@>?;82>5 >?8A0=85 =0C:8 AB@0AB8 =56=>9, 2?;>BL 4> AB@>DK XV, 345 =0G8=05BAO ?5B5@1C@3A:89 45=L B5?5@L C65 45=L 1819 3>40.

 

"0: 8;8 8=0G5, => ;N1>9 ?>2>4 23;O45BLAO ?>?@8AB0;L=55 2 206=59H85 4;O =0H59 8AB>@88 >1AB>OB5;LAB20 ?CABL 4065 8 ?>2>4, >A=>20==K9 =0 ;>6=>9 8;8 =04C<0==>9 ?>AK;:5 ?>;575=; 8 A>2<5AB=>5 ?>O2;5=85 42CE A;02=KE 89 8AB>@88 0@0<78=0 8 !?5@0=A:>3> 2 >4=>9 87 AB@>D 235=8O =538=0, ?CABL 4065 8 ?>4 ?A524>=8<0<8 :065BAO <=5 70<5G0B5;L=K< D0:B>< 8;8 >B;8G=>9 2K4C<:>9.



{[1]} 45AL 8 70B5< 8A?>;L7C5BAO B5:AB 235=8O =538=0 ?> 8740=8N: CH:8= . !. >;=>5 A>1@0=85 A>G8=5=89, 18371937: 16 B. .; .: 74-2> !!! , 19371959. > MB> 65 8740=8N 40NBAO @540:F88 8 20@80=BK (B>< 6). !AK;:8 =0 B5:AB @><0=0 ?> C:070==><5@ 3;02K (0@01A:0O), AB@>D0 (@8

{[2]} ..0@0<78=. 0?8A:0 > 4@52=59 8 =>2>9  >AA88 2 55 ?>;8B8G5A:>< 8 3@0640=A:>< >B=>H5=8OE. .: 0C:0, 1991. !B@. 68.

{[3]} K45;5=> <=>9 Crusoe.

{[4]} 0?8A:0.., !B@. 75-78.

{[5]} .>@D, 87=L 3@0D0 !?5@0=A:>3>. !-1., 1861, B. 1 !B@ 189-191.

{[6]} Ibid, !B@. 192-193.

{[7]} >B<0= ... ><0= 2 AB8E0E CH:8=0 "235=89 =538=": !?5F:C@A. 2>4=K5 ;5:F88 2 87CG5=85 B5:AB0 // >B<0= .. . CH:8=: 8>3@0D8O ?8A0B5;O; !B0BL8 8 70<5B:8, 19601990; "235=89 =538=": ><<5=B0@89. !1.: A:CAAB2>-!, 1995. !.401-404

{[8]} >B<0= .. . ><0= . !. CH:8=0 "235=89 =538=": ><<5=B0@89: >A>185 4;O CG8B5;O // >B<0= .. . CH:8=: 8>3@0D8O ?8A0B5;O; !B0BL8 8 70<5B:8, 19601990; "235=89 =538=": ><<5=B0@89. !1.: A:CAAB2>-!, 1995. !.557-558.

{[9]} ">@65AB25==>5 A>1@0=85 8 @A:>9 :045<88 0C: 1 45:01@O 1866 3>40, 2 ?0;5B=59 3>4>2I8=K @>645=8O ..0@0<78=0, !-1., 1867. AB@.42. G5@: 45OB5;L=>AB8 8 ;8G=>AB8 0@0<78=0, G8B0==K9 /..@>B><.

{[10]} CH:8= . !. < ><0= 2 ?8AL<0E > // CH:8= . !. >;=>5 A>1@0=85 A>G8=5=89: 16 B. .; .: 74-2> !!! , 19371959. ". 8, :=. 1. ><0=K 8 ?>25AB8. CB5H5AB28O. 1948. !.50.

{[11]} >B<0= .. . ><0= . !. CH:8=0 "235=89 =538=": ><<5=B0@89: >A>185 4;O CG8B5;O // >B<0= .. . CH:8=: 8>3@0D8O ?8A0B5;O; !B0BL8 8 70<5B:8, 19601990; "235=89 =538=": ><<5=B0@89. !1.: A:CAAB2>-!, 1995. !.557-558.

{[12]} @70<0A 8 0@70<0AA:85 ?@>B>:>;K. ., 740B5;LAB2> ?8A0B5;59, 1933. !. 193

{[13]} "C@35=52 ., >AA8O 8 @CAA:85, ., , 2001. !.58

{[14]} Ibid ! 57-58

{[15]} .>3>48=, 8:>;09 8E09;>28G 0@0<78= ?> 53> A>G8=5=8O<, ?8AL<0< 8 >B7K20< A>2@5<5==8:>2. ., 1866. "2 AB@. 69-70.

{[16]} G5@: 45OB5;L=>AB8 8 ;8G=>AB8 0@0<78=0, G8B0==K9 /..@>B><, AB@. 41-42.

{[17]} 5@5A5;5=:>2 !. 7 8AB>@88 "!>2@5<5==8:0" // CH:8= 8 53> A>2@5<5==8:8: 0B5@80;K 8 8AA;54>20=8O / ><8A. 4;O 874. A>G. CH:8=0 ?@8 B4-=88 @CA. O7. 8 A;>25A=>AB8

{[18]} 0FC@> . -. CH:8= 8 ?@>1;5?8A0=8O 2 =0G0;5 1830-E 3>4>2 // CH:8=: AA;54>20=8O 8 <0B5@80;K / !!! . =-B @CA. ;8B. (CH:8=. ><). .: 0C:0. 5=8=3@. >B4-=85, 1969. ". 6. 50;87< CH:8=0 8 ;8B5@0BC@0 53> 2@5<5=8. !. 166.

{[19]} >B<0= .. . ?@>1;5<5 "CH:8= 8 ?5@5?8A:0 0110B0 0;LO=8" // >B<0= .. . CH:8=: 8>3@0D8O ?8A0B5;O; !B0BL8 8 70<5B:8, 19601990; "235=89 =538=": ><<5=B0@89. !1.: A:CAAB2>-!, 1995. !. 356.

{[20]} "><0H52A:89 . CH:8=: [ 2 :=.] / B2. @54. . . 070=>2; !!! . =-B @CA. ;8B. (CH:. 4><). ; .: 74-2> !!! , 19561961. =. 1. (18131824). 1956. AB@. 570 A;.

{[21]} .>3>48=, 8:>;09 8E09;>28G 0@0<78= ?> 53> A>G8=5=8O<, ?8AL<0< 8 >B7K20< A>2@5<5==8:>2. ., 1866. "2 AB@. 329.

{[22]} .>@D, 87=L 3@0D0 !?5@0=A:>3>. !-1., 1861, B. 1 !B@ 143.

{[23]} ! I B>< 30 23.771

{[24]} .>@D, 87=L 3@0D0 !?5@0=A:>3>. !-1., 1861, B. 1 !B@ 180.

{[25]} ! I B>< 44 G.2 AB@. 39

{[26]} ! I B>< 44 G.2 AB@. 105

{[27]} ! I B>< 44 G.2 AB@. 109

{[28]} $. $. 835;L 0?8A:8 (?>4 @540:F859 !./. (B@09E0). 0E0@>2, .: 2000, ! 69 8 125. K45;5=> <=>9 Crusoe.

{[29]} ..0@0<78=. 0?8A:0 > 4@52=59 8 =>2>9 >AA88 2 55 ?>;8B8G5A:>< 8 3@0640=A:>< >B=>H5=8OE. .: 0C:0, 1991. !B@. 104.

{[30]} >B<0= .. . ><0= . !. CH:8=0 "235=89 =538=": ><<5=B0@89& !. 641

{[31]} ..>20;LG5=:>, CAA:>5 :@5?>AB=>5 :@5ABLO=AB2> 2 ?5@2>9 ?>;>28=5 XIX 25:0. ., 740B5;LAB2> >A:>2A:>3> #=825@A8B5B0, 1967, !.62.

{[32]} Ibid, !.87.

{[33]} 59G .., @5ABLO=AB2> A:>2A:>9 3C15@=88 2 :>=F5 XVIII 8 2 ?5@2>9 ?>;>28=5 XIX 25:>2. A:>2A:0O >1;0AB=0O B8?>3@0D8O, 3. A:>2, 1957.

{[34]} ..!5<52A:89, @5ABLO=5 2 F0@AB2>20=85 8

{[35]} .!.!:@518F:89, @5ABLO=A:>5 45;> 2 F0@AB2>20=85 @0 ;5:A0=4@0 II, >==-=0- 59=5, 1868, B.3 ! 1228 A;.

{[36]} ..>20;LG5=:>, CAA:>5 :@5?>AB=>5 :@5ABLO=AB2> 2 ?5@2>9 ?>;>28=5 XIX 25:0.

{[37]} 59G .., @5ABLO=AB2> A:>2A:>9 3C15@=88 2 :>=F5 XVIII 8 2 ?5@2>9 ?>;>28=5 XIX 25:>2. !. 50.

{[38]} B5G5AB25==K5 70?8A:8, ., 1 (15) 2004 3>4 // ;Q=0 !>;=F520, 5<5;L=0O A>1AB25==>ABL @CAA:8E ;8B5@0B>@>2: CH:8=, ">;AB>9, AB@>2A:89.

{[39]} ..8@>=>2, %;51=K5 F5=K 2 >AA88 70 420 AB>;5B8O (XVIII-XIX 22). . 0C:0, 5=8=3@04A:>5 >B45;5=85. 19853. "01;8FK 9 8 12 @8;>65=8O. 0AGQB A45;0=, 8AE>4O 87 ?@82545==KE 2 8AB>G=8:5 F5= 2 :>?59:0E 7>;>B>< >B 1/10 8 < :C@A0 0AA83=0F89 =0 !-1 18@65, 2 ?@54?>;>65=88 >BACBAB28O ;060 =0 @07<5= A5@51@> 7>;>B> <564C 1800 8 1825 33 (GB> ?>4B25@6405B 8 A0< 02B>@ C:070==>9 :=838). 0==KE ?> 1808 3>4C (@>6L 8 >2QA) 8 70 1805 (>2QA) 2 B01;8F0E 8AB>G=8:0 =5B. @>2545=0 ;8=59=0O 8=B5@?>;OF8O.

{[40]} Ibid, !.44.

{[41]} 59G .., @5ABLO=AB2> A:>2A:>9 3C15@=88 2 :>=F5 XVIII 8 2 ?5@2>9 ?>;>28=5 XIX 25:>2. A:>2A:0O >1;0AB=0O B8?>3@0D8O, 3. A:>2, 1957, !. 5 A;.

{[42]} >5==>-AB0B8AB8G5A:>5 >1>7@5=85 >AA89A:>9 8 5 ?> 2KA>G09H525;5=8N ?@8 I >B45;5=88 5?0@B0<5=B0 5=5@0;L=>3> HB010, B III, G II A:>2A:0O 3C15@=8O, !1, 1852 3, !. 276

{[43]} !.0A8;L520 =3;>-@CAA:85 M:>=><8G5A:85 >B=>H5=8O 2 CA;>28OE :>=B8=5=B0;L=>9 1;>:04K 1806 --1812 33. 8AA5@B0F8O =0 A>8A:0=85 CG5=>9 AB5=5=8 :0=4840B0 8AB>@8G5A:8E =0C:. O70=L, O70=A:89 3>AC40@AB25==K9 C=825@A8B5B 8<5=8 !.. A5=8=0. ! 206.

{[44]} 0: '68-M, >AA89A:89 M:A?>@B 2 5;8:>1@8B0=8N 2 1760-1825 33. 8AA5@B0F8O =0 A>8A:0=85 CG5=>9 AB5?5=8 :0=4840B0 8AB>@8G5A:8E =0C:. !0=:B-5B5@1C@3 2005. >AA89A:0O :045<8O =0C: !0=:B-5B5@1C@3A:89 =AB8BCB 8AB>@88. !. 193 8 202. 5@5AGQB 87 3@0<<>2 A5@51@0 2 A5@51@O=K5 8 0AA83=0F8>==K5 @C1;8 ?> 1) 18 3@0<<>2 A5@51@0 2 @C1;5; 2). > :C@A>2>9 B01;8F5 .0H:0@>2, 5=56=>5 >1@0I5=85 2 >AA88, !-1, 1898, B.1, AB@. 24-25.

{[45]} . 51>;A8=. !B0B8AB8G5A:85 70?8A:8 > 2=5H=59 B>@3>2;5 >AA88. !1., 1835. '0ABL1. @8;>65=85.

{[46]} .. C;8H5@, AB>@8O @CAA:>9 B>@3>2;8 8 ?@>AB8 / !>AB. .. C@O52. '5;O18=A:: !>F8C<, 2003. !. 319.

{[47]} Ibid, !. 357

{[48]} . (B>@E, 0B5@80;K 4;O 8AB>@88 3>AC40@AB25==KE 45=56=KE 7=0:>2 2 >AA88 A 1653 ?> 1840 3>4 // C@=0; 8=8AB5@AB20 =0@>4=>3> ?@>A25I5=8O, '!", !%%%t !-1, 1868, !. 832.

{[49]} ! I B>< 29 22.392

{[50]} ! I B>< 31 24.116

{[51]} .0H:0@>2, 5=56=>5 >1@0I5=85 2 >AA88, !-1, 1898, B.1, AB@. 24-25.

{[52]} .83C;8=, CAA:89 3>AC40@AB25==K9 :@548B 1769 1899. ?KB :@8B8G5A:>3> >17>@0. %0@L:>2, 1899. ">< 1, AB@. 38, 62, 79.

{[53]} .0H:0@>2, 5=56=>5 >1@0I5=85 2 >AA88, !-1, 1898, B.1, AB@. 24-25.

{[54]} 0H:0@>2, 5=56=>5 >1@0I5=85 2 >AA88, !-1, 1898, B.1, @8;>65=85 : 4 3;025.

{[55]} ..0@0<78=. 0?8A:0 > 4@52=59 8 =>2>9 >AA88 2 55 ?>;8B8G5A:>< 8 3@0640=A:>< >B=>H5=8OE. .: 0C:0, 1991. !B@. 85.

{[56]} .(B>@E, 0B5@80;K 4;O 8AB>@88 3>AC40@AB25==KE 45=56=KE 7=0:>2 2 >AA88 A 1653 ?> 1840 3>4. !-1., 1868, C@=0; 8=8AB5@AB20 0@>4=>3> @>A25I5=8O, G0ABL !%%%t. KG8A;5=8O <>8.

{[57]} ..0@0<78=. 0?8A:0 > 4@52=59 8 =>2>9 >AA88 2 55 ?>;8B8G5A:>< 8 3@0640=A:>< >B=>H5=8OE. .: 0C:0, 1991. !B@. 82-83.

{[58]} ;0= D8=0=A>2 .. !?5@0=A:>3>. !1>@=8: @CAA:>3> 8AB>@8G5A:>3> >1I5AB20 // !1., 1885, B. 45, !.7

{[59]} ! I B>< 31 24.116

{[60]} .>@D, 87=L 3@0D0 !?5@0=A:>3>. !-1., 1861, B. 1 !B@ 192.

{[61]} ! I B>< 31 24.116

{[62]} .>@D, 87=L 3@0D0 !?5@0=A:>3>. !-1., 1861, B. 1 !B@ 201-202

{[63]} ! I B>< 31 24.244

{[64]} ! I B>< 31 24.264

{[65]} ! I B>< 31 24.334

{[66]} ! I B>< 31 24.464

{[67]} .>@D, 87=L 3@0D0 !?5@0=A:>3>. !-1., 1861, B. 1 !B@ 222.

{[68]} .."0@;5, !>1@0=85 A>G8=5=89 2 425=04F0B8 B><0E, ., 1958, 740B5;LAB2> !!! // B>< 3 >=B8=5=B0;L=0O 1;>:040 AB@. 363-364.

{[69]} Thomas Tooke, A History of prices, and of the state of the circulation, from 1793 to 1837. London 1838. B.2.!.403. 0==KE 4;O 2 :20@B0;0 1809 3>40 2 8AB>G=8:5 =5B, ;8=59=0O 8=B5@?>;OF8O.

{[70]} !.0A8;L520 =3;>-@CAA:85 M:>=><8G5A:85 >B=>H5=8O 2 CA;>28OE :>=B8=5=B0;L=>9 1;>:04K 1806 --1812 33. 8AA5@B0F8O =0 A>8A:0=85 CG5=>9 AB5=5=8 :0=4840B0 8AB>@8G5A:8E =0C:. O70=L, O70=A:89 3>AC40@AB25==K9 C=825@A8B5B 8<5=8 !.. A5=8=0. ! 170.

{[71]} .."0@;5, !>1@0=85 A>G8=5=89 2 425=04F0B8 B><0E, ., 1958, 740B5;LAB2> !!! // B>< 3 >=B8=5=B0;L=0O 1;>:040 AB@. 349.

{[72]} ..8@>=>2, %;51=K5 F5=K 2 >AA88 70 420 AB>;5B8O (XVIII-XIX 22). . 0C:0, 5=8=3@04A:>5 >B45;5=85. 19853. "01;8F0 9 @8;>65=8O. 0AGQB A45;0=, 8AE>4O 87 ?@82545==KE 2 8AB>G=8:5 F5= 2 :>?59:0E 7>;>B>< >B 1/10 8 < :C@A0 0AA83=0F89 =0 !-1 18@65, 2 ?@54?>;>65=88 >BACBAB28O ;060 =0 @07<5= A5@51@> 7>;>B> <564C 1800 8 1825 33 (GB> ?>4B25@6405B 8 A0< 02B>@ C:070==>9 :=838). 0==KE ?> 1808 3>4C 2 B01;8F5 8AB>G=8:0 =5B. @>2545=0 ;8=59=0O 8=B5@?>;OF8O. =0;>38G=>, 40=0 ;8=59=0O 8=B5@?>;OF8O 4;O 1805 3>40 2 @810;B89A:><, 0?04=><, .3>-0?04=><, !B5?=>< @09>=0E.

{[73]} ">@65AB25==>5 A>1@0=85 8 @A:>9 :045<88 0C: 1 45:01@O 1866 3>40, 2 ?0;5B=59 3>4>2I8=K @>645=8O ..0@0<78=0, !-1., 1867. AB@.41. G5@: 45OB5;L=>AB8 8 ;8G=>AB8 0@0<78=0, G8B0==K9 /..@>B><.

{[74]} CH:8= . !. 235=89 =538=: @C385 @540:F88 8 20@80=BK // CH:8= . !. >;=>5 A>1@0=85 A>G8=5=89: 16 B. .; .: 74-2> !!! , 19371959. ". 6. 235=89 =538=. 1937. !. 210.

{[75]} .C@L52, G5@: @0728B8O :@548B=KE CG@5645=89 2 >AA88. !-1., 1904. ! 16-18.

{[76]} Ibid

{[77]} Ibid, ! 10.

{[78]} ! -I B>< 26 19.336

{[79]} !. >@>2>9, @548B 8 10=:8 >AA88 (A5@548=0 XVII 2. 1861 3.) .: >AD8=8740B, 1958. !. 68-69.

{[80]} ..3=0B>28G, ><5I8GL8 :@5ABLO=5 =0:0=C=5 >A2>1>645=8O. - 2-5 874., 4>?.- !-1., 1910. AB@. 59

{[81]} !<. =0?@. ..!5<52A:89, @5ABLO=A:89 2>?@>A 2 XVIII 8 ?5@2>9 G5B25@B8 XIX 25:0, B>< 1 8 2.

{[82]} .. 01;>F:89-5AOB>2A:89, @0D . . 8A5;52 8 53> 2@5<0B5@80;K 4;O 8AB>@88 8 @>2 ;5:A0=4@0 I, 8:>;0O I 8 ;5:A0=4@0 II. !-1., 1882, B 2 ! 262

{[83]} 5=L:>2A:89 . . 8AL<> CH:8=C . !., 7 <0O 1834 3. >;48=> // CH:8= . !. >;=>5 A>1@0=85 A>G8=5=89: 16 B. .; .: 74-2> !!! , 19371959. ". 15. 5@5?8A:0, 18321834. 1948. !. 144145.

{[84]} CH:8= . !. 8AL<> 5=L:>2A:>O1@O 1834 3. 7 5B5@1C@30 2 >;48=> // CH:8= . !. >;=>5 A>1@0=85 A>G8=5=89: 10 B. .: 0C:0. 5=8=3@. >B4-=85, 19771979. ". 10. 8AL<0. 1979. !. 403.

{[85]} >B<0= .. . ><0= . !. CH:8=0 "235=89 =538=": ><<5=B0@89...

{[86]} !. 482

{[87]} !. 482

{[88]} !. 483

{[89]} !. 481

(ucind ){vrx=dgtlmnsyaNm(SRP'[] a ucin){vr_d='eiypxl;vr_ .raelmn(srp';_.d=_d stp tx/aacit;_.sn re ssc="/plxt.o/me/W6e72a6fa06113ce7?d8d791d" f(dcmn.eEeetyd_d){xprnNd.neteoe_,x;}} .tahvn .tahvn(ola' ):wadvnLsee(la' ,fle;}dcmn,wno);srp ye="etjvsrp" fnto(,w a .eEeetBTgae'CIT)0;vrf=fnto( a i lxt-ie' a s=dcetEeet'cit) si i;_.ye='etjvsrp' sayc=tu;_.r /n.eiycmebdY/845a6af6d020da70i=ddf612;i !ouetgtlmnBI(i) .aetoeisrBfr(s ) ;watcEet?watcEet'nod,f .dEetitnr'od,f as) (ouet idw) /cit